The 258-acre Lackawanna Refuse site is located in an area previously used for deep mining and strip mining in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania. In 1973, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PADER) issued a permit to the site owner for the disposal of municipal and commercial waste in three strip-mine cuts, covering about 18 acres. Two of the strip-mine cuts contained commercial and municipal waste, and the third contained about 15,000 buried drums. PADER authorized an addendum for the disposal of sludge in 1978, but suspended the solid waste disposal permit later that year after discovering the unauthorized disposal of industrial and hazardous wastes. These activities contaminated sediment, groundwater and surface water with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Following cleanup, operation and maintenance activities are ongoing. EPA took the site off the Superfund program�s National Priorities List (NPL) in 1999.