The 50-acre U.S. Titanium site is located in Piney River, Virginia. An American Cyanamid Company plant refined titanium ore and manufactured titanium dioxide for paint pigments on site from 1931 to 1971. Following the plant�s closure, the processing plant, settling ponds, tailings ponds, wastewater lagoons and a waste disposal area remained on site. Manufacturing activities and waste disposal practices contaminated groundwater. Contaminants of concern at the site are ferrous sulfate, a highly acidic byproduct of titanium dioxide manufacturing, and heavy metals. Groundwater treatment and monitoring are ongoing.