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Record of Decision System (RODS)



Address:  511 EAST PATERSON STREET BOX 2798 
City & State:  KALAMAZOO  MI  49003
EPA ID:  MID006007306
EPA Region:  05
NPL Status:  Currently on the Final NPL
ROD Type:  Record of Decision
ROD ID:  EPA/541/R-98/098
ROD Date:  02/10/1998
Operable Unit(s):  03
Media:  Groundwater, Leachate, Residuals, Sediment, Soil, Surface Water
Contaminant:  PCBs
Abstract:  Please note that the text in this document summarizes the Record of Decision for the purposes of facilitating searching and retrieving key text on the ROD. It is not the officially approved abstract drafted by the EPA Regional offices. Once EPA Headquarters receives the official abstract, this text will be replaced.

The King Highway Landfill-Operable Unit 3 (KHL-OU3) and the Georgia-Pacific former lagoons 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (five former lagoons) of the Allied Paper, Inc./ Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund site are located in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The KHL, the King Street Storm Sewer (KSSS) floodplain, and the adjacent Kalamazoo River are included in the KHL-OU3. The land immediately adjacent to the south and southwest sides of the KHL-OU3 is classified for industrial or secondary commercial use. The KHL covers 23.2 acres and consists of four Cells. The total volume of residuals in the KHL is estimated at 282,000 cubic yards.

The floodplains, wetlands, and river corridor of the Kalamazoo River and Portage Creek provide habitat for numerous important fish and aquatic species, semi-aquatic species, and terrestrial species. The Kalamazoo River is a critical natural resource for southwest Michigan providing recreational opportunities such as fishing, hunting, trapping, bird watching, boating, hiking, biking and swimming.

Carbonless copy paper manufactured between 1957 and 1971 contained Aroclor 1242 as an ink carrier or solvent. The KHL was originally a series of lagoons used by the Kalamazoo Paper Company to dewater the underflow of the paper mill's primary clarifier located on the north side of the river.

The soils, sediments, water column, and biota at the site are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a hazardous substance and probable human carcinogen. The KHL-OU3 and the five former lagoons are both locations which contain PCBs and are considered to be a current ongoing source of PCBs to the Kalamazoo River. The PCBs continue to migrate from the KHL-OU3 and the five former lagoons into the environment and off-site due to erosion caused by river flow and surface water run-off. This contributes to the ongoing contamination of the soils, sediments, water column, and biota of the site (i.e. the Kalamazoo River) and Lake Michigan. The MichiganDepartment of Community Health has issued a species specific no consumption fish advisory annually since 1977 for the Kalamazoo River portion of this site due to the PCB contamination.
In August 1990, the site was officially placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). There are four Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) for the PCB contamination of this site. They are HM Holdings, Inc./Allied Paper, Inc., Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Simpson Plainwell Paper Company, and James River Corporation.

A Record of Decision was issued in February 1998 that addressed the four Cells of the KHL, PCB-contaminated sediments, soils, and residuals located on the berms, in the KSSS floodplain, in the Kalamazoo River directly adjacent to the KHL, and in the five former lagoons at Georgia-Pacific Corporation.
Remedy:  This remedy is intended to be the final action for the five former lagoons and the King Highway Landfill-Operable Unit 3 (KHL-OU3) of the site. The purpose of this remedy is to eliminate or reduce the potential migration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the Kalamazoo River and to reduce the risk associated with exposure to the PCB-contaminated materials.

The major components of the selected remedy include: excavation of PCB-contaminated soils, sediments, and residuals from the berms, the King Street Storm Sewer (KSSS) floodplain, the five former lagoons, and the Kalamazoo River directly adjacent to the King Highway Landfill (KHL). Excavated soils, sediments, and residuals containing PCBs will be consolidated in Cell 4 of the KHL prior to construction of the cover; construction of a cover (cap) over the landfill. The cap consists a six-inch thick, select granular fill, gas venting layer, a 30-mil thick polyvinyl chloride (PVC) geomembrane liner (barrier layer), at least a 24-inch thick general fill layer (protective layer), and at least a six-inch thick vegetative layer (erosion layer); groundwater monitoring wells will be installed and wells that are no longer needed will be abandoned; groundwater and surface water monitoring shall be performed for at least 30 years following landfill capping; deed restrictions limiting future land use will be imposed at the KHL-OU3; access restrictions, including enclosing the entire KHL-OU3 and the five former lagoons with a fence, will be implemented; a permanent marker will be placed at the KHL-OU3 and warning signs will be posted on the fence every 500 feet on all entry gates.

Estimated Capital Costs: $1.6-$2.7 million
Estimated Annual O&M Costs: $125,000
Estimated Present Worth Costs: $3.2-$4.3 million
Text:  View full-text ROD [ 92K ]
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