Record of Decision System (RODS)
BOFORS NOBEL, INC.
|Site Name:||BOFORS NOBEL, INC.|
|Address:||5025 EVANSTON AVE|
|City & State:||MUSKEGON MI 49442|
|NPL Status:||Currently on the Final NPL|
|Media:||Groundwater, Sludge, Soil|
Please note that the text in this document summarizes the Record of Decision for the purposes of facilitating searching and retrieving key text on the ROD. It is not the officially approved abstract drafted by the EPA Regional offices. Once EPA Headquarters receives the official abstract, this text will be replaced.
The Bofors Nobel Superfund Site is an 85 acre site is located 6 miles east of downtown Muskegon in Egelston Township, Muskegon County, Michigan, and includes a currently operating specialty chemical production facility and 10 abandoned sludge lagoons. The southern portion of the site is approximately bounded by Big Black Creek.
Lakeway Chemicals, Inc. began producing industrial chemicals at the site in or around 1960. The plant produced alcohol based detergents, saccharin, pesticides, herbicides and dye intermediates. Unlined lagoons were used for wastewater and sludge disposal until approximately 1976. Wastes disposed of in the lagoons included iron sludge, iron scale, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and other organic wastes, zinc oxide waste, wastes generated from spills, calcium sulfate sludge, and detergent wastes. In the 1970s, the state discovered many of these contaminants with site groundwater. Releases from lagoons as well as contaminant concentrations in the groundwater were high enough to severely decrease the amount of surface water life within Bog Black Creek, which received the groundwater discharge. In 1976, as a result of enforcement action by the state, extraction wells were installed by Lakeway to capture and contain contaminated groundwater before it reached Big Black Creek. This system of extraction wells has been expanded and continues to operate.
In 1977, Bofors Industries Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bofors America Inc. (BAI), acquired title to the site through its merger with Lakeway and continued the operations of the chemical plant. The merger company, Bofors Lakeway Inc., remained a wholly-owned subsidiary of BAI. BAI in turn was a wholly-owned subsidiary of AB Bofors, which later became Nobel Industries Sweden AB. In 1981, Bofors Lakeway Inc. changed its name to Bofors Nobel Inc. (BNI). In December 1985 BNI filed a Chapter 11 case in Bankruptcy court. In December 1986 BAI transferred ownership of BNI to BAI Holding Inc. another wholly-owned subsidiary of Nobel. In March 1987, certain assets of BNI were sold under the supervision of Bankruptcy court. These assets included the operating plant which was sold to the current owner/operator, Lomac Inc.
The state began the Remedial Investigation (RI) at the site in March 1987. The site was placed on the National Priorities List in March 1989. Two operable units (OUs) were defined at the site. The state, with review by USEPA, completed the RI for both operable units in the summer of 1989. The state conducted a Feasibility Study (FS) for OU1 concurrently with the RI. The FS was completed in June 1990. OU1 addresses contaminated sludge and soils in the abandoned lagoon area and the groundwater extraction and treatment system. As defined in the ROD, the second operable unit addressed overall groundwater cleanup standards and contaminated soils in the plant area. As part of the fundamental remedy change, this second Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment for OU1 will establish site wide groundwater remediation goals and remove them form the scope of OU2.
To address soils contamination with OU2, Lomac will submit an Interim Remedial Action Plan to the state for the plant area soils during Lomac's continued operations. The Interim Remedial Action Plan will be reviewed and approved by the state in consultation with USEPA. USEPA will issue a final OU2 ROD to address a final cleanup action to be implemented at the time when manufacturing in the plant area ceases.
The Total In-situ Containment (TIC) remedy will consist of the following minimum components:
" A below grade barrier wall to a depth of approximately 75 to 100 feet around areas of soil contamination, which may be keyed to a confining layer.
" A cover designed to prevent unacceptable exposure to contaminated soils and sludge and any associated emissions.
" Installation of vegetative species to assist in immobilization of soils and provide enhancement of natural mechanisms for reduction of contaminant concentrations.
" Containment and collection of contaminated groundwater, using the barrier wall and other acceptable collection methods, including extraction wells. Construction activity for the barrier wall, cover, vegetation installation and groundwater containment/collection will include restoration of wetlands that may be disturbed by the construction, and may create new wetland areas.
" Appropriate treatment of collected and extracted groundwater at the groundwater treatment plant, or an alternate facility that provides an equivalent level of effectiveness.
" Monitoring programs to assess the containment effectiveness of the barrier wall and groundwater collection system, and to assess the reduction of contaminant concentrations in soil, sludge and groundwater.
" Establishing appropriate institutional controls (such as deed restrictions) to preclude unacceptable construction and use of wells in areas where contamination remains, and to ensure that future land use is compatible with the remedy.
" Long term operation and maintenance (O&M) to ensure the effectiveness of containment and groundwater extraction within areas of known contamination, including newly vegetated areas.
" Contingent remedial actions in the event remedy components fail to meet and maintain performance standards.
Estimated Capital Cost: $15,639,990
Estimated Annual O & M Cost: $830,000 (years 1 to 3)
$770,000 (years 3 to 8)
$570,000 (years 8 to 33)
$353,000 (years 33 to 103)
Estimated Present Worth Cost: $25,123,150
Estimated Capital Cost of Contingent Residual Action: $4,594,540
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