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Record of Decision System (RODS)



Site Name:  HANFORD 200-AREA (USDOE)
Address:  200 AREA 
City & State:  BENTON COUNTY  WA  99352
County:  BENTON
EPA ID:  WA1890090078
EPA Region:  10
NPL Status:  Currently on the Final NPL
ROD Type:  Record of Decision
ROD ID:  EPA/ROD/R10-95/100
ROD Date:  01/20/1995
Operable Unit(s):  14
Media:  Soil contamination, air
Contaminant:  Radioactive, hazardous waste, asbestos, PCBs, mixed waste radionuclides, heavy metals, VOCs, semi-volatiles organic compounds, pesticides/alochlors, inorganics
Abstract:  Please note that the text in this document summarizes the Record of Decision for the purposes of facilitating searching and retrieving key text on the ROD. It is not the officially approved abstract drafted by the EPA Regional offices. Once EPA Headquarters receives the official abstract, this text will be replaced.The site currently known as the Hanford 200-Area is located near Richland, Washington. The facility has been operated by the Federal Government since 1943 for plutonium production for military use and nuclear energy research and development. Past activities released hazardous and radioactive substances to the environment that contaminated soil, air, and groundwater.The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site was listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in July 1989. The Hanford Site was divided and listed as four NPL sites: the 1100 Area, the 200 Area, the 300 Area, and the 100 area. The 1100 Area ROD, issued in September 1993, specifies that the waste generated during remediation will be disposed of offsite. Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the EPA's NPL under CERCLA. Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) signed by Ecology, EPA, and the DOE, more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. An operable unit is a grouping of individual waste units based primarily on geographic area and common waste sources. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive waste, mixed waste (radioactive and hazardous), and other CERCLA hazardous substances.The remedy selection process for remediation of operable units located along the Columbia River is scheduled to commence in January 1995. Based on investigations and public input to date, it is anticipated that the remedies selected for these operable units may include removal of waste from proximity to the Columbia River and isolation of the waste on the Central Plateau.The Hanford Site is a 560 square-mile area located along the Columbia River in southwestern Washington, situated north and west of the cities of Richland, Kennewick, and Pasco, an area commonly known as the Tri-Cities.The land surround the Hanford Site is used primarily for agriculture and livestock grazing. The major population center near Hanford is the Tri-Cities, with a combined population of nearly 100,000. The southwestern area of Hanford, covering 120 square miles, is designated as the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve and is managed by the DOE for ecological research.The Hanford Site was established during World War II as part of the Army's "Manhattan Project" to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hanford Site operations began in 1943, and DOE facilities are located throughout the Site and the City of Richland. The land that Hanford now occupies was ceded to the U.S. Government in treaties with the Confederated Bands and Tribes of the Yakama Indian Nation and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in 1855. Certain portions of the Hanford Site are known to have cultural significance and may be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places.The Hanford Site was added to the NPL in July 1989 as four sites (the 1100 Area, the 200 Area, the 300 Area, and the 100 Area). Each of these areas was further divided into operable units (a grouping of individual waste units based primarily on geographic area and common waste sources). These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances.In anticipation of the NPL listing, DOE and EPA entered into a Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order in May 1989. This agreement established a procedural framework and schedule for developing, implementing, and monitoring remedial response actions at Hanford. The agreement also addresses RCRA compliance and permitting
Remedy:  This ROD addresses the disposal of radioactive, hazardous/dangerous, asbestos, PCB, and mixed wastes resulting from the remediation of operable units within the 100, 200, and 300 Area National Priorities List (NPL) sites of the Hanford Site. The ERDF will minimize migration of contaminants from waste, primarily soils debris, placed in the facility. The 1100 Area ROD, issued in September 1993, specifies that the waste generated during remediation will be disposed of off site.The major components of the selected remedy include the following:Initial construction and operation of two disposal cells that are expected to provide an approximate waste disposal capacity of 1.2 million square yards on the Central Plateau, southeast of the 200 West Area and southwest of the 200 East Area. The initial construction of the facility will require 165 acres of this area.The ERDF facility will provide sufficient leachate storage capacity to ensure uninterrupted operations. Leachate collected at the landfill will be managed at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility.Surface water run-on/run-off will be controlled at the landfill and other areas of the facility that are potentially contaminated. Best management practices to control runoff shall be employed.During excavation, suitable soils will be stockpiled at the ERDF site to provide materials for liner systems and for daily interim and closure covers for the landfill. Materials not suitable for construction of the liner and covers will be used for other construction purposes at the Hanford Site to the extent practicable.Air monitoring will be accomplished by placement at ERDF of real-time air monitors for radioactive contaminants and air samplers for hazardous and radioactive constituents to detect any off site migration of contaminants. Groundwater monitoring will also occur.The ERDF landfill will be closed by placing a modified RCRA-compliant closure cover over the waste. The cover will prevent direct exposure to the waste and includes a vegetated surface layer of fine-grained soils to retain moisture and encourage evapotranspiration, thereby mining infiltration and vadose zone transport of contaminants to groundwater. The upper 50 cm (20 in.) of the soil cover system is composed of an admixture of silt and gravels. This layer is intended to both reduce infiltration through the cover and enhance the resistance of the cover to burrowing animals and long-term wind erosion. The RCRA-compliant cover will be modified by providing a total of approximately 15 feet of soil to deter intrusion. It is anticipated that additional research into closure covers may result in site specific enhancements to RCRA-compliant designs. Prior to cover construction, closure cover designs will be evaluated and the most appropriate closure cover design will be selected for construction. Construction of the cover will occur on an incremental basis, as the trench is expanded. The design will, at a minimum, comply with applicable RCRA requirements found at 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart N. Basalt from Hanford Site borrow pits will not be required for construction of the ERDF closure cover.A decontamination facility will be constructed consisting of, at a minimum, an impervious pad with sump, wash water storage, and secondary containment. Washwater used to decontaminate site equipment shall be managed in compliance with appropriate requirements.
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