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Record of Decision System (RODS)

HANFORD 100-AREA (USDOE)

Abstract

Site Name:  HANFORD 100-AREA (USDOE)
Address:  100 AREA 
City & State:  BENTON COUNTY  WA  99352
County:  BENTON
 
EPA ID:  WA3890090076
EPA Region:  10
 
NPL Status:  Currently on the Final NPL
 
ROD Type:  Record of Decision
ROD ID:  EPA/ROD/R10-95/126
ROD Date:  09/28/1995
Operable Unit(s):  01
 
Media:  soils, structures, debris
 
Contaminant:  Radionuclides, methylene chloride, acetone, toluene, chromium, mercury, antimony, chrysene, pentachlorophenol, arsenic, lead, zinc
 
Abstract:  Please note that the text in this document summarizes the Record of Decision for the purposes of facilitating searching and retrieving key text on the ROD. It is not the officially approved abstract drafted by the EPA Regional offices. Once EPA Headquarters receives the official abstract, this text will be replaced.

The Hanford Site is a 560 square mile Federal facility located in Benton County in southeastern Washington along the Columbia River. It is situated north and west of the cities of Richland, Kennewick, and Pasco, an area commonly known as the Tri-Cities. Land use in the areas surrounding the Hanford Site includes urban and industrial development, irrigated and dry-land farming, grazing, and designated wildlife refuges. Industries in the Tri-Cities mostly are related to agriculture and electric power generation. Wheat, corn, alfalfa, hay, barley, and grapes are the major crops in Benton, Franklin, and Grant counties.

The Hanford Site was established during WWII as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hanford Site operations began in 1943. Certain portions of the Hanford Site are known to have cultural and historical significance and may be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places.

The Hanford 100 Area (100 Area), which encompasses 26 square miles bordering the south shore of the Columbia River, is the site of the nine retired plutonium production reactors.

Pre-Hanford uses included Native American usage and agriculture. Existing land use in the 100 Area includes facilities support, waste management, and undeveloped land. Facility support activities include operations such as water treatment and maintenance of the reactor buildings. The waste management land use designation results from former uncontrolled disposal activities in areas now known as past-practice waste sites located throughout the 100 Area that comprise approximately 90 percent of the land area within the 100 Area. These areas are the least disturbed and contain minimal infrastructure. An 18-mile stretch of the Columbia River is located within the 100 Area. The shoreline of the Columbia River is a valued ecological area within the Hanford Site.

The 100-BC-1 Operable Unit is one of three operable units associated with the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. In general, it contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support reactor operation, as well as the cooling water retention basins. The 100-DR-1 area currently provides sanitary and fire protection to the 100-H and 100-F areas. The 100-HR-1 operable unit is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. The operable unit contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support one of the reactors. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and non-routine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for a reactor were produced. These solar evaporation basins received wastes from 1973 through 1985. Currently there are no active facilities, operations, or liquid discharges within the 100-HR-1 operable unit.
 
Remedy:  The selected remedy for the site addresses actual or threatened releases at high priority liquid radioactive effluent disposal sites. The major components of the selected remedy include: remove contaminated soil, structures and debris using the Observational Approach; treatment, by thermal desorption to remove organics and/or soil washing for volume reduction, or as needed to meet waste disposal criteria; disposal of contaminated materials at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility; and backfill of excavated areas followed by revegetation.
 
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