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Record of Decision System (RODS)

MICHIGAN DISPOSAL SERVICE (CORK STREET LANDFILL)

Abstract

Site Name:  MICHIGAN DISPOSAL SERVICE (CORK STREET LANDFILL)
Address:  2800 E CORK ST 
City & State:  KALAMAZOO  MI  49001
County:  KALAMAZOO
 
EPA ID:  MID000775957
EPA Region:  05
 
NPL Status:  Currently on the Final NPL
 
ROD Type:  Record of Decision
ROD ID:  EPA/ROD/R05-91/171
ROD Date:  09/30/1991
Operable Unit(s):  01
 
Media:  SOIL SEDIMENT DEBRIS GROUND WATER SURFACE WATER
 
Contaminant:  VOCS, BENZENE, OTHER ORGANICS, PCBS, METALS, ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, LEAD
 
Abstract:  THE 68-ACRE MICHIGAN DISPOSAL SERVICE LANDFILL SITE IS AN INACTIVE MUNICIPAL LANDFILL IN KALAMAZOO, KALAMAZOO COUNTY, MICHIGAN. LAND USE IN THE AREA IS PREDOMINANTLY INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND RESIDENTIAL. THE EASTERN BORDER OF THE SITE LIES WITHIN A WETLAND AND THE 100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN OF NEARBY DAVIS CREEK. FROM 1925 TO 1961, THE SITE WAS OWNED AND OPERATED BY PRIVATE PARTIES AS A MUNICIPAL LANDFILL. FORTY-SEVEN ACRES OF THE TOTAL SITE WAS USED AS A LANDFILL. IN 1961, THE CITY OF KALAMAZOO PURCHASED THE PROPERTY AND BEGAN ACCEPTING WASTES FROM RESIDENCES, BUSINESSES, AND LOCAL INDUSTRIES. THE MAJORITY OF THESE WASTES WERE INCINERATED ONSITE, WITH ONSITE DISPOSAL OF THE ASH. FROM 1968 TO 1981, THE SITE WAS LICENSED TO ACCEPT ONLY INERT WASTES, AND INCINERATION CEASED DUE TO NEW AIR POLLUTION REGULATIONS. IN 1981, THE SITE WAS SOLD, AND SUBSEQUENTLY, WAS OPERATED AS A LICENSED LANDFILL. DURING THE MID-1980'S, THE STATE CONDUCTED INVESTIGATIONS AS PART OF A LANDFILL EXTENSION REQUEST. THESE ONSITE STUDIES DOCUMENTED THAT WASTES LEACHING FROM THE LANDFILL HAD CONTAMINATED ONSITE SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND GROUND WATER. TO CONTINUE LANDFILL OPERATIONS, THE OWNERS WERE ORDERED TO INSTALL A COLLECTION SYSTEM TO INTERCEPT LEACHATE PRIOR TO ENTRY INTO DAVIS CREEK TO PREVENT CONTAMINATION OF THE CREEK. THIS RECORD OF DECISION (ROD) ADDRESSES ONSITE CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, GROUND WATER, AND SURFACE WATER, AS A FINAL REMEDY. THE PRIMARY CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN AFFECTING THE SOIL, SEDIMENT, DEBRIS, GROUND WATER, AND SURFACE WATER ARE VOCS INCLUDING BENZENE; OTHER ORGANICS INCLUDING PCBS; AND METALS INCLUDING ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND LEAD.

THE SELECTED REMEDIAL ACTION FOR THIS SITE INCLUDES INSTALLING A CLAY CAP AND REVEGETATING THE LANDFILL CONTENTS; INSTALLING A LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM AND A GAS VENTING SYSTEM FOR THE LANDFILL; PUMPING AND PRETREATING GROUND WATER ONSITE, AS REQUIRED, FOLLOWED BY OFFSITE DISCHARGE OF THE GROUND WATER/LEACHATE TO A PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS (POTW); MONITORING ALL MEDIA; AND IMPLEMENTING INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS, AND SITE ACCESS RESTRICTIONS INCLUDING FENCING. THE ESTIMATED PRESENT WORTH COST FOR THIS REMEDIAL ACTION IS $8,269,500, WHICH INCLUDES AN ANNUAL O&M OF $253,800 FOR 20 YEARS.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS OR GOALS; GROUND WATER CLEANUP GOALS ARE BASED ON SDWA AND STATE STANDARDS. CHEMICAL-SPECIFIC GOALS FOR GROUND WATER INCLUDE BENZENE 1 UG/L (STATE), ARSENIC 0.02 UG/L (STATE), AND LEAD 5 UG/L (STATE).
 
Remedy:  THE SELECTED REMEDY IS THE FINAL REMEDY FOR THE SITE. THE REMEDY ADDRESSES THE THREATS POSED BY LOW LEVEL THREAT WASTES AND CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER AT THE SITE. LOW LEVEL THREAT WASTES ARE DEFINED AS THOSE SOURCE MATERIALS THAT GENERALLY CAN BE RELIABLY MANAGED WITH LITTLE LIKELIHOOD OF MIGRATION AND THAT PRESENT A LOW RISK IN THE EVENT OF EXPOSURE. THEY INCLUDE SOURCE MATERIALS THAT EXHIBIT LOW MOBILITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT OR ARE ABOVE PROTECTIVE LEVELS BUT ARE NOT CONSIDERED TO BE SIGNIFICANTLY ABOVE PROTECTIVE LEVELS FOR TOXIC COMPOUNDS. THE REMEDY EMPLOYS ENGINEERING CONTROLS TO CONTAIN THE LANDFILLED WASTE (LOW LEVEL THREAT WASTES) ON-SITE. THE REMEDY ALSO EMPLOYS TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER. THE LANDFILL DOES NOT HAVE A THREAT THAT CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS A PRINCIPAL THREAT.

THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE SELECTED REMEDY INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING;
* GROUND WATER EXTRACTION FOLLOWED BY TREATMENT OF THE EXTRACTED CONTAMINATED WATER AT THE POTW. IF NECESSARY, EXTRACTED WATER WILL BE TREATED ON-SITE TO MEET POTW PRETREATMENT STANDARDS BEFORE BEING SENT TO THE POTW;
* DEED RESTRICTIONS TO CONTROL THE USE OF THE LAND AND THE GROUND WATER;
* CONTAINMENT OF THE LANDFILL CONTENTS USING A CLAY CAP WITH A VEGETATED SOIL LAYER WHICH COMPLIES WITH RCRA SUBTITLE D AND ACT 641 CLOSURE REQUIREMENTS. THE CAP WILL CONSIST OF (FROM TOP TO BOTTOM) FOUR INCHES OF TOP SOIL WITH VEGETATION, A LAYER OF SOIL FOR FROST PROTECTION AND DRAINAGE, CLEAN FILL TO DEVELOP THE REQUIRED GRADES, AND A 2-FOOT THICK CLAY LAYER; AND
* INSTALLING FENCING AND WARNING SIGNS TO RESTRICT ACCESS
 
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