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Record of Decision System (RODS)

G&H LANDFILL

Abstract

Site Name:  G&H LANDFILL
Address:  3160 23 MILE RD 
City & State:  UTICA  MI  48316
County:  MACOMB
 
EPA ID:  MID980410823
EPA Region:  05
 
NPL Status:  Currently on the Final NPL
 
ROD Type:  Record of Decision
ROD ID:  EPA/ROD/R05-91/152
ROD Date:  12/21/1990
Operable Unit(s):  01
 
Media:  SOIL SEDIMENT DEBRIS GROUNDWATER
 
Contaminant:  VOCS, BENZENE, TCE, TOLUENE, XYLENES, OTHER ORGANICS, PCBS, METALS, ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, LEAD, OILS
 
Abstract:  THE 70-ACRE G&H LANDFILL SITE IS AN INACTIVE LANDFILL IN SHELBY TOWNSHIP, MACOMB COUNTY, MICHIGAN. SURROUNDING LAND USE IS PREDOMINANTLY RESIDENTIAL WITH ADJACENT LIGHT INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES AND A RECREATIONAL AREA THAT INCLUDES WETLAND AND WOODLAND HABITATS. THE SITE OVERLIES TWO GROUND WATER AQUIFERS, THE UPPERMOST OF WHICH IS THE SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER FOR SOME EASTERN AREA RESIDENCES AND INDUSTRIES. A PORTION OF THE SITE IS LOCATED WITHIN THE 100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN OF THE CLINTON RIVER. THE SITE IS SUBDIVIDED INTO THREE LANDFILL AREAS; A 44-ACRE PHASE I LANDFILL AREA, A 17-ACRE PHASE II AREA, AND AN 8-ACRE PHASE III LANDFILL AREA. FROM 1955 TO 1973, G&H LANDFILL ACCEPTED MUNICIPAL REFUSE, AND SOLID AND LIQUID INDUSTRIAL WASTES INCLUDING SOLVENTS, PAINTS, VARNISHES, AND LACQUERS. IN ADDITION, FROM 1955 TO 1967, WASTE OIL AND WATER MIXTURES WERE DISPOSED OF AT THE LANDFILL. SEVERAL UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPTS WERE MADE BY THE LANDFILL OPERATORS TO RECLAIM THE OIL, BY PUMPING THE OIL INTO SETTLING PONDS. AFTER THE OIL WAS ALLOWED TO SETTLE, THE VOLATILE COMPONENTS EVAPORATED, AND THE RESULTING SLUDGE WAS PERIODICALLY REMOVED AND BURIED IN THE LANDFILL. IN 1965 AND 1966, THE STATE DETERMINED THAT IMPROPER LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL OPERATIONS AND WASTE OIL DISPOSAL/RECLAMATION ACTIVITIES AT THE LANDFILL WERE CONTRIBUTING TO ONSITE GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AND OIL SEEPS SOUTH OF THE SITE. BASED ON THESE FINDINGS, ALL DISPOSAL OPERATIONS WERE ORDERED TO CEASE. THE LANDFILL CONTINUED TO OPERATE AS A SANITARY LANDFILL UNTIL 1973, AT WHICH TIME IT WAS CLOSED WITHOUT A PROPER CLOSURE PLAN. FROM 1982 TO 1989, EPA INITIATED FOUR REMOVAL ACTIONS AT THE SITE TO RESTRICT PUBLIC ACCESS TO CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER AND OIL SEEPS, AND TO PREVENT THE MIGRATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED OIL. IN 1989, APPROXIMATELY 2,400 GALLONS OF A PCB-CONTAMINATED OIL AND WATER MIXTURE WERE REMOVED AND DISPOSED OF AT AN OFFSITE THERMAL DESTRUCTION FACILITY. THE SITE HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO TWO OPERABLE UNITS (OUS) FOR REMEDIATION. THIS RECORD OF DECISION (ROD) ADDRESSES CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND LANDFILL MATERIAL (OU1); AND THE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER PLUME, LANDFILL LEACHATE, AND OIL SEEP (OU2). THE GROUND WATER CONTAMINANT PLUME AND THE SOLVENT/OIL-CONTAMINATED SOIL AND LANDFILL DEBRIS IN THE PHASE I LANDFILL AREA HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AS THE PRINCIPAL THREAT. THE PRIMARY CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN AFFECTING THE SOIL, SEDIMENT, DEBRIS, AND GROUND WATER ARE VOCS INCLUDING BENZENE, TCE, TOLUENE, AND XYLENES; OTHER ORGANICS INCLUDING PCBS; METALS INCLUDING ARSENIC, CHROMIUM, AND LEAD; AND OILS.

THE SELECTED REMEDIAL ACTION FOR THIS SITE INCLUDES CONSTRUCTING A LANDFILL COVER OVER THE SITE TO MEET CURRENT STATE LANDFILL CLOSURE REQUIREMENTS; CONSTRUCTING A SUBSURFACE BARRIER WALL AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE LANDFILL AREAS AND OIL SEEPS; INSTITUTING LEACHATE COLLECTION AND TREATMENT; EXCAVATING SOIL AND SEDIMENT OUTSIDE THE SLURRY WALL WITH PCB CONCENTRATIONS GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 1 MG/KG, FOLLOWED BY CONSOLIDATING THESE UNDER THE LANDFILL COVER IF LESS THAN 500 MG/KG, OR TREATING THE SOIL AND WASTE USING OFFSITE INCINERATION, VITRIFICATION, OR SOME OTHER TECHNOLOGY APPROVED BY EPA FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF PCBS IF CONCENTRATIONS ARE GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 500 MG/KG; REPLACING AFFECTED WETLANDS; PUMPING AND TREATING THE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER PLUME OUTSIDE THE SLURRY WALL, FOLLOWED BY ONSITE DISCHARGE TO THE ADJACENT CLINTON RIVER OR TO A TREATMENT PLANT IF PRETREATMENT CRITERIA ARE MET; CONNECTING NEARBY RESIDENTS TO THE LOCAL MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY; MONITORING GROUND WATER, SURFACE WATER, AND AIR; AND IMPLEMENTING DEED AND GROUND WATER USE RESTRICTIONS, AND SITE ACCESS RESTRICTIONS SUCH AS FENCING. THE ESTIMATED PRESENT WORTH COST FOR THIS REMEDIAL ACTION IS $40,000,000, WHICH INCLUDES AN ESTIMATED ANNUAL O&M COST OF $750,000 FOR 30 YEARS.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS OR GOALS; EXCAVATED SOIL AND SEDIMENT WILL BE TREATED TO 1 MG/KG TO DESTROY PCBS IF PCB CONCENTRATIONS ARE GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 500 MG/KG, OR WILL BE CONSOLIDATED IN THE LANDFILL IF PCB CONCENTRATIONS ARE LESS THAN 500 MG/KG. GROUND WATER CLEANUP STANDARDS ARE BASED ON STATE STANDARDS AND SDWA MCLS. CHEMICAL-SPECIFIC GOALS INCLUDE VINYL CHLORIDE 0.02 UG/L (STATE), BENZENE 1 UG/L (STATE), PCE 0.7 UG/L (STATE), TCE 3 UG/L (STATE), XYLENES 20 UG/L (STATE), ARSENIC 0.02 UG/L (STATE) (MAY CHANGE; ARSENIC STANDARD WILL BE ESTABLISHED BASED ON BACKGROUND), AND LEAD 5 UG/L (STATE). NOTE; AN ESD IS ADJUSTING SEVERAL GROUND WATER STANDARDS. EXISTING STANDARDS LESS THAN 1 UG/L WILL BE ADJUSTED TO 1 UG/L FOR CARCINOGENS, WHICH IS THE APPROXIMATE DETECTION LIMIT FOR CHEMICALS OF CONCERN. STANDARDS LESS THAN 1 UG/L FOR INORGANICS WILL BE ADJUSTED TO BACKGROUND LEVELS TO BE DETERMINED BY EPA.
 
Remedy:  THE SELECTED REMEDY IS A FINAL REMEDY, USING DIFFERENT METHODS TO ADDRESS THE PRINCIPAL THREATS AT THE SITE. A TREATMENT REMEDY WILL ADDRESS THE PRINCIPAL THREAT POSED BY THE GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT PLUME, AND A CONTAINMENT REMEDY WILL ADDRESS THE PRINCIPAL THREAT POSED BY THE MASSIVE SOURCE OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION WITHIN A PORTION OF THE LANDFILL. THE SELECTED REMEDY ALSO ADDRESSES THE LONG-TERM, LOWER-LEVEL THREAT POSED BY OTHER PORTIONS OF THE LANDFILL AND CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS;
* CONSTRUCTION OF A LANDFILL COVER (CAP) IN COMPLIANCE WITH MICHIGAN STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE RULES 299.9619 (CAP SPECIFICATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL CLOSURE);
* CONSTRUCTION OF A SUBSURFACE VERTICAL BARRIER WALL (SLURRY WALL) AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE LANDFILL AREAS. THE DETROIT WATER AND SEWERAGE DEPARTMENT (DWSD) WATER MAIN WHICH TRAVERSES THE SITE SHALL BE ISOLATED FROM THE LANDFILL AREAS BY THE SLURRY WALL, AS DESCRIBED IN THE ATTACHED DECISION SUMMARY. GROUNDWATER WILL BE PUMPED (AND TREATED, SEE BELOW) FROM THE UPPER AQUIFER WITHIN THE SLURRY WALL TO MAINTAIN AN INWARD HYDRAULIC GRADIENT ACROSS THE BARRIER WALL;
* COLLECTION AND TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM THE WESTERN PERIMETER OF THE LANDFILL;
* EXTRACTION AND TREATMENT OF THE GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT PLUME OUTSIDE OF THE SLURRY WALL TO MEET FEDERAL DRINKING-WATER STANDARDS AND STATE GROUNDWATER-QUALITY STANDARDS. THE TREATED WATER SHALL BE DISCHARGED INTO THE ADJACENT CLINTON RIVER IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE SUBSTANTIVE REQUIREMENTS OF THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES), AS ADMINISTERED BY THE STATE OF MICHIGAN UNDER PART 21 OF THE WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION ACT 245 OF 1929, AS AMENDED. ALTERNATIVELY, THE TREATED WATER MAY BE DISCHARGED TO THE DWSD TREATMENT PLANT IF PRETREATMENT CRITERIA ARE MET;
* PERIODIC MONITORING OF THE GROUNDWATER AQUIFERS AND SURFACE WATERS ON SITE AND IN THE VICINITY OF THE LANDFILL;
* PROVISION FOR ALTERNATE WATER SUPPLIES (CONNECTION TO THE MUNICIPAL WATER SYSTEM) TO ADJACENT RESIDENCES AND BUSINESSES WHICH ARE CURRENTLY UTILIZING PRIVATE WELLS AS A WATER SUPPLY;
* PROVISION FOR REPLACEMENT OF AFFECTED WETLANDS AT THE SITE;
* EXCAVATION OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS OUTSIDE OF THE SLURRY WALL WHICH ARE CONTAMINATED BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AT A CONCENTRATION OF 1 PART PER MILLION (PPM) OR GREATER. SOILS AND SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED BY PCBS AT A CONCENTRATION OF 500 PPM OR GREATER WILL BE TREATED TO DESTROY THE PCBS. EXCAVATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED BY LESS THAN 500 PPM PCBS WILL BE CONSOLIDATED UNDER THE LANDFILL COVER;
* IMPOSITION OF DEED RESTRICTIONS LIMITING LAND AND GROUNDWATER USE AT THE LANDFILL AND GROUNDWATER USE IN THE SITE VICINITY UNTIL CLEANUP STANDARDS ARE MET; AND
* PERIODIC REVIEW OF EMERGING IN SITU TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES (SUCH AS BIOREMEDIATION) TO DETERMINE IF A SUITABLE TECHNOLOGY CAN BE EFFECTIVELY APPLIED TO TREAT THE PRINCIPAL THREAT (THE MASSIVE CONTAMINANT SOURCE) WITHIN THE LANDFILL. THE REVIEW WILL SEEK TO DETERMINE WHETHER ANY SUCH TECHNOLOGIES WOULD EFFECTIVELY DECREASE THE LEVELS OF CONTAMINATION WITHIN THE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM SO AS TO (1) REDUCE THE LONG-TERM RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONTAMINANTS, (2) REDUCE THE RISK OF FAILURE OF THE CONTAINMENT REMEDY DUE TO THE HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF CONTAMINANTS, AND (3) REDUCE THE RISK OF EXPOSURE TO CONTAMINANTS DUE TO A FAILURE OF THE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. SUCH TECHNOLOGIES WOULD BE REVIEWED IN CONFORMITY WITH THE REMEDY SELECTION CRITERIA OF CERCLA AND THE NCP.
 
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