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Record of Decision System (RODS)

WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE

Abstract

Site Name:  WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE
Address:  ST RTE 444 
City & State:  DAYTON  OH  45324
County:  GREENE, MONTGOMERY
 
EPA ID:  OH7571724312
EPA Region:  05
 
NPL Status:  Currently on the Final NPL
 
ROD Type:  Record of Decision
ROD ID:  EPA/541/R-98/105
ROD Date:  09/30/1998
Operable Unit(s):  09,11
 
Media:  Groundwater, Sediment, Soil, Surface Water
 
Contaminant:  Base Neutral Acids, Dioxins/Dibenzofurans, Dissolved Solids (Total), Inorganics, Metals, PAH, PCBs, Pesticides, Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Radioactive, VOC
 
Abstract:  Please note that the text in this document summarizes the Record of Decision for the purposes of facilitating searching and retrieving key text on the ROD. It is not the officially approved abstract drafted by the EPA Regional offices. Once EPA Headquarters receives the official abstract, this text will be replaced.

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) is located in southwestern, Ohio, east of the city of Dayton and adjacent to the city of Fairborn. The Base is approximately 60 miles north of Cincinnati and 50 miles west of Columbus. It lies in Montgomery and Greene counties.

The installation is composed of Wright and Patterson Fields, which are separated by State Route 444. Wright Field comprises Area B, approximately 2,800 acres; and Patterson Field comprises Areas A and C, approximately 5,711 acres. The Base is the Headquarters to the Air Force Material Command and home to organizations such as the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Air Force Institute of Technology and the Aeronautical Systems Center. The Base has a significant proportion of its acreage devoted to logistical support/warehouse land uses, research and development and uses, and administrative and classroom space. Airfield functions constitute 24 percent of all on-base land uses. The Base has more than 2,500 acres of undeveloped land, but much of that acreage is restricted from certain types of development by environmental constraints, such as flood plains, steep slopes, Indian burial mounds, and other cultural/natural features. Other constraints, such as a new national park, laser testing facilities, explosive safety zones and clear zones for runaways, also restrict development in certain areas.

There are five known historic sites on the installation. Two Indian mound sites and the Huffman Prairie Flying Field, the location of early Wright brothers aircraft development, are both listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Huffman Prairie Flying Field is a National Historic Landmark and is part of the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historic Park.

Adjacent land uses include agricultural, residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial. Commercial strip development in Fairborn and Riverside are situated across from the installation on State Route 444 and Springfield Pike and adjacent to the Page Manor residential area to the southwest. Adjacent industrial activities are situated to the northeast and northwest. Wright State University is adjacent to the south central portion of the installation. Open space remains primarily along the northern/northwestern boundary (the Huffman Reserve) and to the east. Residential development is established all along the southern/southeastern boundary and occurs sporadically along other perimeter areas.

WPAFB was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List in October 1989. Subsequently, in March 1991, WPAFB signed a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) with USEPA, Region V. A total of 64 Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites have been identified. Most of these sites are grouped into 11 Operable Units (OUs) across the Base.

OU1:
Landfills 8 and 10 are located in the northeast corner of Area B. An unnamed tributary to Hebble Creek flows through the valley between the landfills. The area surrounding the site includes on-base military housing known as the Woodland Hills housing subdivision and off-base private homes on National and Zink Roads and Kauffman Avenue. These off-base homes are serviced by private drinking water wells. The Woodland Hills military housing units are serviced by the base water supply which draws its water from another area of base.
Landfill 8 began operation about 1947 and encompasses approximately 11 acres. Landfill 10 was opened in 1965 and covers 8 acres. Following closure in the early 1970s, the landfills and surrounding area were then used for recreation until April 198. At that time, WPAFB designated the area off-limits and restricted access to both landfills and the intervening valley with a security fence in response to concerns expressed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) and the USEPA over potential exposure of local residents to hazardous waste.
The total volumeof waste material buried at Landfill 8 is estimated at 187,300 cubic yards. The total volume of waste material buried at Landfill 10 is estimated at 171,600 cubic yards.
Response actions were taken by WPAFB in June 1989 to address the leachate seep problem closest to the Woodland Hills residential area. A passive temporary leachate collection system was then installed in March 1991 along the northern and eastern slopes of Landfill 10. Leachate for the system holding tank is periodically emptied to a tanker truck and appropriately disposed of by WPAFB personnel.
Military housing units north of Landfill 8 and east of Landfill 10 that are adjacent to the landfills were vacated in 1990. Based upon the absence of significant concentrations of methane or other gases detected during indoor air monitoring, the Air Force reoccupied selected homes in 1992. Reoccupied homes were equipped with continuous methane monitors as a precaution.
A Record of Decision (ROD) was approved in July 1993 for the Source Control Operable Unit (SCOU) for cleanup of the landfills themselves. A ROD was approved in June 1994 for the Off-Source Operable Unit (OSOU) for cleanup of areas outside but potentially affected by the landfills.

OU2:
OU2 consists of a group of eight sites located close together in the northeastern portion of Area C. These sites are Spill Sites 2, 3, and 10, the Coal and Chemical Storage Area, Temporary Coal Storage Pile (TCSP), Long Term Coal Storage Area (LTCSA), Burial Site (BS 1), and Building 89 Coal Storage Pile (B89CSP). Spill Sites 2, 3, and 10 are located in the Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricants (POL) Area. All sites in OU2 fall within a rectangular area of approximately 105 acres, although the combined area of the sites is significantly less.
The TCSP covers 3.7 acres and lies at the north end of the POL Storage Area. The LTCSA, about 5.5 acres in size, is located in the northeastern portion of OU2 near the WPAFB eastern boundary and the city of Fairborn's North Well Field. The site encompasses approximately 5.5 acres. The B89CSP consists of approximately 6.2 acres located in the south end of OU2 and runs along the edge of the base just northeast of Building 89.
Spill Site 2 is associated with the release of approximately 8,300 gallons of jet fuel in 1976; the spill occurred within a diked area surrounding the tank. Spill Site 3 involved the release of 1,200 to 2,500 gallons of fuel oil in 1981. The spill occurred between Tank 272 and the fueling station. The spill at Site 10 occurred in 1989 when a flange gasket ruptured on a fuel hydrant and released an estimated 150 gallons of fuel. In addition to these spills the underground piping system may have had other leaks that contributed to the contamination of the soil and groundwater in the area. Spill cleanups were conducted at the time of the spills these sites.
From 1991 until 1995, several cleanup actions for Spill Sites 2, 3, and 10 took place. Two recovery systems were installed to collect any contaminants from a monitoring well in the POL Storage Area. When the second one was destroyed in a fire, it was not rebuilt. Instead, a passive recovery system was installed in a different well in the area and a bioventing system was added to demonstrate the viability of soil bioventing. Lastly, upgrades to the POL facility were made including installing fixed roofs and new valves on the tanks and installing an oil/water separator. Additional improvements were made to the facility in 1996.
One of the three September 1996 RODs addressed five of the eight OU2 sites (the Coal and Chemical Storage Area, TCSP, LTCSA, BS 1, and B89CSP). A ROD was completed in September 1997 addressing subsurface soil and groundwater contamination at Spill Sites 2, 3, and 10.

OU3:
OU3 consists of 10 IRP sites. OU3 is located near the main runway, adjacent to the Mad River and within the Mad River floodplain. The area includes forests, open fields, and several gravel-covered sites used to conduct fire training exercises in support of flightline operations. There are no buildings within OU3, and the land use is restricted to recreational (hunting and camping) and light industrial (fire training) activities.
Three jurisdictional wetlands and two areas of wetland habitat have been identified within OU3. The presence of these wetlands, along with abundant vegetation and animal life, indicates the area supports native species commonly found in southwestern Ohio. OU3 lies in and near the clear zone of an active runway complex, and its use is limited to occasional recreation and industrial activity. Thus, OU3 is expected to remain undeveloped for an indefinite period.
Three Landfills (LFs) (LFs 11, 12, 14), four Fire Training Areas (FTAs) (FTAs 2, 3, 4, and 5) and one spill site (SS 1) are located within OU3. In addition, two former Earthfill Disposal Zones (EFDZs 11 and 12) are located immediately north of OU3.
The land at OU3 is nearly flat, with some elevated soil areas within FTAs 2, and 5, and at LF11 (due to consolidation/mounding of the buried waste). OU3 lies against the eastern bank of the Mad River and within the floodplain behind Huffman Dam. Most of OU3 lies within the 10-year Mad River floodplain. Surface water at OU3 either drains directly into the Mad River or into small unnamed tributaries that carry runoff from the flightline and other areas into the Mad River. Boreholes drilled at seven locations within OU3 encountered bedrock at depths ranging from 58 feet (north of LF11) to 163 feet below the ground surface (east of LF12). Groundwater was encountered at depths ranging from 4 feet (LF12) to nearly 20 feet (LF11), with an average depth of about 10 feet beneath the ground surface.
One of the RODs completed in September 1996 presented the No Action remedial alternative for all the sites within OU3 except LF11 and LF12.

OU4:
OU4 includes Landfills 3, 4, 6, 7 (LF3, LF4, LF6, and LF7, respectively), in the southeastern section of Area C, with a portion of the sites extending into the southwestern corner of Area A. LF3 operated as a surface dump and burn operation from about 1940 to 1944 and covers 3 acres. LF4, covering 8 acres, operated from 1944 to 1949. LF4 reportedly accepted large objects such as automobile bodies, in addition to general refuse, to bring the grade of the gravel pit above the 20 to 30 feet of water reportedly in the pit. LF6, covering 7 acres, operated from 1949 to 1952 as a trench and cover operation for general refuse. LF7, covering 18 acres, operated from 1952 to 1962 as a trench and cover operation for general refuse. An area adjacent to the northwestern edge of LF7 is referred to as the drum staging area, and an area northwest of the landfill, where scattered drums were located, is referred to as the drum disposal area.
Prior to is use as part of the WPAFB golf course, LF3 received a cover of about 6 to 8 inches or sandy silt and 4 to 6 inches of topsoil. In 1988, the southwestern edge of LF4 was excavated for the construction of Skeel Avenue. Wastes were removed and part of the surface was paved with asphalt; other areas are covered with densely compacted sand and gravel fill. The thickness of cover at LF4 ranges from a few inches to about three feet. In 1984, a clay and topsoil cover was placed on LF6 and LF7. Measured thickness of cover over fill and refuse is 6 inches to 2 feet thick. Drums from the Drum Disposal Area and the Drum Staging Area were recovered and disposed of in 1990. Based on the conclusions of the Remedial Investigation (RI), landfill capping as a presumptive remedy was selected and implemented at LFs 6 and 7. A cover maintenance program was developed for all sites. A ROD completed in September 1998 presented the No Action alternative for 41 sites, including LFs 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 in OU4.

OU5:
OU5, located in the southwest corner of Area C, is a collection of discrete sites that have, or may have been used for handling or disposal of hazardous chemical materials in the past, and areas located adjacent to these sites. OU5 IRP sites include Landfill 5 (LF5), FTA 1, the Gravel Lake Tank Site (GLTS), and BS4. The LF5 Extension (LFE) is a large area adjacent to LF5, initially believed to be part of the LF, but not an IRP site. Within OU5 are three lakes, East Twin Lake, West Twin Lake, and Gravel Lake, and two wetlands. Other areas included in OU5 are the area south of LF5 to Hebble Creek and the area north of FTA 1 to Hebble Creek. These areas, along with the Lakes, are referred to as the south of LF5. They are located within OU5 but are not IRP sites.
LF5 is a 23-acre site located north of the Twin Lakes between Riverview and Prairie Roads. General refuse from Areas A and C was reportedly disposed of at this LF during the period of 1945 to 1991. Based on conclusions of the RI, capping as a presumptive remedy was selected and completed in 1997. In additional to the source control measures implemented for LF5, a groundwater extraction system has been installed to prevent further migration of contaminated groundwater beyond the Base boundary. A ROD completed in September 1998 presented the No Action alternative for 41 sites, including LF5 in OU5.

OU6:
OU6 includes Landfill 1 (LF1), Landfill 2 (LF2), and the Earth Filled Disposal Zone (EFDZ). All of these sites are located in the southwest corner of Area B within the Mad River floodplain. LF1 is a 4-acre site just northwest of the Air Force Museum. It was operated from the 1920s through 1940 for disposal of Area B refuse, surface disposal and burning. LF2 is a 15-acre site located just west of the Area B runway. It was operated from the early 1940s through 1951 as a dump for Area B refuse. Fill material was placed into gravel pits in direct contact with groundwater. LF1 and LF2 will be capped under a separate project as part of the Landfill Caps Presumptive Remedy Removal Action, as discussed in the September 1996 ROD. A ROD completed in September 1998 presented the No Action alternative for 41 sites, including LF1 and LF2 in OU6.
EFDZ 1 consists of both on-base (EFDZ 1 and EFDZ 1B) and off-base (EFDZ 1C) areas separated by Harshman Road. EFDZ 1 encompasses 23 acres and lies entirely upon a portion of the Miami Valley Aquifer, a federally designated sole source aquifer. The off-base portion of EFDZ 1 (EFDZ 1C, located west of Harshman Road) is currently used as a community park maintained by the city of Riverside. This area is approximately 4 acres and consists of a playground, recreational areas, open fields, and a few asphalt covered areas used as walking paths, parking areas, and access roads. The on-base portion of EFDZ 1 is located approximately 600 yards from the U.S. Air Force Museum, and is very close to the flight line in the clear zone of an active, though seldom used runway complex. There are no buildings located at EFDZ 1, and the land is not used for commercial or residential purposes. Because of the current land use restrictions, EFDZ 1 is likely to remain undeveloped and unpopulated, except for the community and recreational activities. The September 1995 ROD proposed No Action for EFDZ.

OU10:
OU10 is a wedge shaped section of land, approximately 119 acres in size. It lies between Wright and Skeel Avenues in the northeastern portion of the Base and bordering the city of Fairborn. OU10 consists of a group of four IRP sites including LF13, Tank Farm 49A, Underground Storage Tank 30119, and Central Heating Plant P-3 and the associated battery burial site. Three other areas of potential contamination were also investigated under the Remedial Investigation (RI). These areas, though not IRP sites, include the Building 13 sump pit area, an area with minor soil contamination near the Base Headquarters (Building 10) flagpole, and a former dry cleaning operation in Building 89. OU10 land use is currently, and is expected to remain, light industrial/office complex, unlikely to be used for recreational or residential purposes in the future. One of the three RODs completed in September 1996 address OU10.
 
Remedy:  The Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) has selected No Action (NA) as the remedial alternative for 41 Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites at the Base. The NA decision for these sites deals only with soils. The selection of the NA alternative is based on the following factors:
1) The results of the risk assessment indicated that the site did not pose an unacceptable risk;
2) For sites where the risk assessment identified an unacceptable risk, removal actions were implemented which reduced the risk or eliminated the exposure pathway;
3) Groundwater, surface water, and sediment at these NA sites will be monitored under the Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP); and
4) The NA alternative for these sites is the preferred remedy presented in the Proposed Plan, released for public review and comment on July 1, 1998.

In addition, the selected remedial alternative of NA includes the following conditions: access restrictions, institutional controls, continued maintenance, and deed restrictions. Most of these sites are located within an active military installation with limited access. Some of the sites have additional fencing around them, further limiting access. Digging and/or excavating at any of these sites, especially those with waste/contamination left in place (such as the landfills), is currently restricted by the nature of the installation and should remain minimal. For landfills 1 through 7, 9 and 11, maintenance of the landfill caps will be conducted as described in the Operation and Maintenance Plans specific to each landfill. If, in the future, portions of the Base are transferred, appropriate land use restrictions will be incorporated into the deed prior to transfer. These restrictions will ensure that the land use does not interfere with the remedy implemented at these sites, and that the proposed reuse is protective of human health and the environment. For the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Range, in the event of property transfer, restrictions will be placed on the deed to restrict further land use to industrial uses.
Estimated Capital Cost: not provided
Estimated Annual O&M: not provided
Estimated Present Worth Costs: not provided
 
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