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Record of Decision System (RODS)



City & State:  IDAHO FALLS  ID  83401
EPA ID:  ID4890008952
EPA Region:  10
NPL Status:  Currently on the Final NPL
ROD Type:  Record of Decision
ROD ID:  EPA/541/R-98/061
ROD Date:  09/29/1998
Operable Unit(s):  21
Media:  Groundwater, Sludge, Soil
Contaminant:  Base Neutral Acids, Inorganics, Metals, PAH, PCBs, Pesticides, Radioactive, VOC
Abstract:  Please note that the text in this document summarizes the Record of Decision for the purposes of facilitating searching and retrieving key text on the ROD. It is not the officially approved abstract drafted by the EPA Regional offices. Once EPA Headquarters receives the official abstract, this text will be replaced.

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a government facility managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), located 32 miles west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, and occupies 890 square miles of the northeastern portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain. The INEEL lands are within the aboriginal land area of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes. These lands and waters provided the Tribes their home and sustained their way of life. DOE has documented an excess of 1,500 prehistoric and historic archaeological sites at the INEEL. Facilities at the INEEL are primarily dedicated to nuclear research, development, and waste management. Surrounding areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management for multipurpose use. The developed area within the INEEL is surrounded by a 500 square mile buffer zone used for cattle and sheep grazing. In the counties surrounding the INEEL, approximately 45% is agricultural land, 45% is open land, and 10% is urban. Most of the land surrounding the INEEL is owned by private individuals or the U.S. Government.

Public access to the INEEL is strictly controlled by fences and security personnel. State highways 22, 28, and 33 cross the northern portion of the INEEL. A total of 90 miles of paved highways pass through the INEEL and are used by the general public. The Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA), the largest potable aquifer in Idaho, underlies the Eastern Snake River Plain and the INEEL. Most INEEL facilities are currently operated by one of three Government contractors. These contractors conduct various programs at the INEEL under the supervision of three DOE offices: DOE-Idaho (DOE-ID), Department of Defense (DoD)-Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, and DOE-Chicago (DOE-CH).

The INEEL was established in 1949 as the National Reactor Testing Station by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as a site for building, testing, and operating nuclear reactors, fuel processing plants, and support facilities with maximum safety and isolation. In 1974, the area was designated as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to reflect the broad scope of engineering activities conducted there. The name was changed to the INEEL in 1997 to reflect the redirection of its mission to include environmental research. The U.S. Government occupied portions of the INEEL prior to its establishment as the National Reactor Testing Station. During World War II, the U.S. Navy used about 270 square miles of the site as a gunnery range. The U.S. Army Air Corps once used an area southwest of the naval gunnery area as an aerial gunnery range. The present INEEL site includes all of the former military areas and a large adjacent shop withdrawn from the public domain for use by the DOE. The former Navy administration shop, warehouse, and housing area are presently the Central Facilities Area of the INEEL.

To better manage environmental investigations, the INEEL was subdivided into ten Waste Area Groups (WAGs). Identified contaminant release sites in each WAG were in turn divided into Operable Units (OUs) to expedite the investigations and any required remedial actions. The term "site" will herein refer to a named release site in one of the OUs. While "area" will herein be used to define all or a portion of an identified OU release site. In July 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed listing the INEEL on the National Priorities List (NPL). The EPA issued a final ruling that listed the INEEL as an NPL site in November 1989.

The Test Area North (TAN) complex is located approximately 80 km (50 miles) northwest of Idaho Falls in the northern portion of the INEEL and extends over an area of approximately 30 square km (12 square miles). The Technical Support Facility (TSF) is centrally located within TAN and consists of several experimental and support facilities that are for conducting research and development activities on reactor performance. The TSF-05 Injection Well islocated in the southwest corner of TSF. Three other major test facilities are located near TSF and are considered part of TAN. These facilities are the Specific Manufacturing Capability/Containment Test Facility, the Initial Engine Test Facility, and the Water Reactor Research Test Facility. The Big Lost River and Birch Creek are the only natural surface water features present near TAN. Surface water can occur at TAN during and following periods of heavy rainfall and snowmelt. However, the presence of diversion systems, and playas located at the terminal points of the Big Lost River and Birch Creek, typically prevent surface water from reaching TAN.

Operations at TAN were initiated in the early 1950s to support the U.S. Air Force aircraft nuclear propulsion (ANP) project. The objectives of the ANP project were to develop and test various designs for nuclear-powered engines and fuels for use on aircraft. The principal source of groundwater contamination at TAN is the TSF-05 Injection Well, which was used from 1953 to 1972 to dispose of TAN liquid wastes into the fractured basalt of the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Releases to TAN groundwater were first identified in August 1987, in the production wells that supply drinking water to TSF. To mitigate potential risks to personnel at TAN, an air sparging system was installed on the drinking water supply system. A Record of Decision (ROD) was completed in August 1995, addressing the groundwater in the immediate vicinity of TAN as OU 1070B.

OU2 is the 1-07A TAN Injection Well OU. The TSF-05 Injection Well is the principal source of groundwater contamination at TAN. In 1990, an initial effort removed process sludge from the bottom 17 m (55 feet) of the TSF-05 Injection Well. An Interim Action ROD was completed in September1992, addressing the groundwater contaminants near the injection well to prevent further degradation of groundwater while the OU 1-07B RI/FS was being completed.

OU4 is the 2-12 Test Reactor Area (TRA) Perched Water OU. The TRA is located in the southwestern portion of the INEEL approximately 47 miles west of Idaho Falls. The TRA covers an area of approximately 1,700 by 1,900 feet and is surrounded by a double security fence. Located inside the fence are more than 73 buildings and 56 structures, such as tanks, cooling towers, laboratories and offices. The facility contains three high neutron flux nuclear test reactors: the Materials Test Reactor, the Engineering Test Reactor, and the Advanced Test Reactor. Only the Advanced Test Reactor is currently operational. WAG 2 covers the TRA.

The TRA was established in the early 1950s to operate and test high neutron flux nuclear test reactors. Wastewater generated during operations is disposed of in the wastewater ponds at the TRA. Six disposal units have been used that have contributed to the formation and contamination of the Perched Water System; four of which are currently active. The active units include the warm waste pond, which receives radiologically contaminated wastewater; the cold waste pond, which receives primarily reactor cooling water with no radiological activity; the chemical waste pond, which is used for disposal of wastewater from ion exchange units and water softeners; and the sanitary waste ponds, which are used for sanitary wastes. A number of groundwater investigations have been conducted since 1949 in the vicinity of the TRA to characterize the quality of the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The Perched Water System RI was conducted in 1992, and a ROD for no remedial action was completed in December 1992.

OU5, also designated as OU 2-10, addresses the Warm Waste Pond sediments. The Warm Waste Pond consists of three wastewater infiltration cells excavated in 1952, 1957, and 1964, for the disposal of reactor cooling water, radioactive wastewater, and regenerative solutions from ion exchange.

The release of radioactive and/or hazardous contaminant to the Warm Waste Pond was identified and evaluated during investigations conducted in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action requirements of the July 1987 DOE, State, and EPA Consent Order/Compliance Agreement. Additional sampling was conducted in 1990 in accordance with Superfund protocol. The Warm Waste Pond was proposed for an interim action under the Consent Order, and a ROD for the interim action was completed in December 1991.

OU6, also designated as OU2-13, addresses the 55 known or suspected contaminant release sites that have been identified within WAG 2. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at a network of Snake River Plain Aquifer wells in the vicinity of TRA and for selected deep perched water zone wells. Localized areas of radionuclide-contaminated soil were located in and north of the North Storage Area. The soil contamination was removed in the summer of 1995 and 1996 as part of an INEEL-wide cleanup of radioactively contaminated surface soil. The OU 2-13 comprehensive RI/FS conducted at the TRA was completed in February 1997 and resulted in the identification of eight sites with potential risk to human health and requiring some type of remedial action. A ROD was completed in December 1997, providing for remedial action at the eight sites and no action for the remaining 47 sites.

OU8, which is also known as the OU 4-12, consists of the Central Facilities Area (CFA) Landfills. The CFA is located in Butte County in the south-central portion of the INEEL. CFA Landfills I, II, and III are located approximately 0.5 miles north of the CFA proper. The Snake River Aquifer beneath the CFA is at about 480 feet. Flow of the aquifer in this region is generally to the south-southwest. The only naturally occurring surface water at CFA results from heavy rainfall or snowmelt, usually during the period from January to April.

The original facilities at the CFA were built in the 1940s and 1950s to house personnel. The facilities have been modified over the years to fit the changing needs of the INEEL and now provide craft, office, service, and laboratory space. The CFA landfills were operated as municipal-type landfills for the INEEL. CFA Landfill I was operated as a disposal facility from the early 1950s until the mid-1980s. The landfill covers a total surface area of approximately 8.25 acres. The landfill is composed of three major units, commonly referred to as the rubble landfill, the western waste trench, and the northern waste trench. CFA Landfill II, in use from 1970 until 1982, was a fill operation encompassing 15 acres in the southwestern portion of an abandoned gravel pit. CFA Landfill III, encompassing 12 acres, was opened in October of 1982, when operations at CFA Landfill II were terminated, and continued as a cut-and-fill operation until December 1984, when it also was terminated. An expansion to Landfill III was opened west of the original Landfill III and continued to handle the same type of waste. It was operational until 1993 and is no longer in use. This expansion is not considered part of OU 4-12. A ROD was completed in September 1995, documenting the results of the OU 4-12 RI/FS and the selected remedy for CFA Landfills I, II, and III.

OU9, also referred to as OU 4-11, addresses the CFA Motor Pool Pond, that is located in an abandoned gravel pit approximately 366 m (1,200 feet) east of the CFA Equipment Yard. A small pond, approximately 36 by 18 meters (120 by 60 feet), formed in the low spot when wastes were being discharged. Currently, the pond is typically dry; however, runoff may temporarily accumulate in the pond after storm events and during spring thaws. Wastewater discharged to the pond originated at the CFA Service Station. A 20-cm (8-inch) diameter concrete pipe extends southeast from the Service station and discharges to a ditch.

From 1951 until 1985, the CFA Motor Pool Pond received wastes from two sumps located at the CFA Service Station. One of the sumps collected wastes from bus washes and floor drains in the adjacent Service Bay, and the second sump collected wastes from the Steam Cleaning Bay. In late 1985, the wastes were diverted through an oil/water separator to a sanitary sewer line connected to the Sewage Treatment Plant, and discharge to the Motor Pool Pond ceased. The CFA Motor Pool Pond was sampled as part of an INEEL-wide preliminary assessment of waste streams conducted in 1982 and 1983. The pond was sampled again in 1988 as part of a DOE Environmental survey, and in 1989 in support of RCRA closure activities. Radiation surveys of the CFA Motor Pool Pond were conducted during periods when the pond contained water and when the pond was dry. The survey performed in September 1991 indicated only background levels of radiation. An RI risk assessment of the excavated sediments along the ditch and the sediments at the discharge pipe outlet, in the ditch, and in the pond, indicated that the contaminated sediments within these areas do not present an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. A ROD was completed in December 1992, for no further action at the CFA Motor Pool Pond.

OU12 is the Auxiliary Reactor Area (ARA)-I Chemical Evaporation Pond, which is designated as OU 5-10 of WAG 5. The ARA is located in Butte County on the southern portion of INEEL, and consists of four separate facilities; ARA-I is the southernmost and oldest facility. The ARA facilities have been used for research reactor operations and support activities. All ARA reactors have been removed, and each facility has undergone partial decontamination and decommissioning. ARA-I was a support facility and has not been used for operations since 1988.

The ARA-I Chemical Evaporation Pond is an unlined surface impoundment that was previously used to dispose of laboratory wastewater from building ARA-627. The pond was constructed in 1970 by excavating native soil to create a topographic depression. Discharges to the pond ceased in 1988. The pond is now typically dry except after precipitation events. A sampling effort was conducted in 1990 to better characterize the ARA-I Chemical Evaporation Pond. Results of the sampling were documented in a RI Report. A ROD was completed in December 1992, for no remedial action for pond sediments and sediments under the discharge pipe.

OU14 addresses Pad A within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of WAG 7. The RWMC encompasses 144 acres in the southwestern portion of INEEL and consists of two main disposal and storage areas: Transuranic (TRU) Storage Area and Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Pad A is located in the north-central portion of the SDA. Surface water is present at the RWMC only during periods of heavy rainfall and snowmelt. To minimize the potential for surface water to flow onto the RWMC during periods of high surface water runoff at the INEL, water is diverted from the RWMC via spreading areas and associated dikes, located to the west and south of the RWMC. To further enhance surface water diversion from the pits and trenches, berms have also been constructed immediately around the SDA.

The RWMC was established in the early 1950s as a disposal site for solid, low-level waste generated by INEEL operations. Within the RWMC, is the SDA where hazardous substances have been disposed in underground pits, trenches, soil vault rows, and Pad A (an aboveground pad). TRU waste was disposed in the SDA from 1952 to 1970. Approximately 13,341 cubic yards of containerized solid wastes were placed on Pad A from September 1972 to August 1978. Pad A was closed in 1978 and presently has a soil cover. A ROD was completed in January 1994, documenting the results of the RI/FS and the remedy selected for Pad A.

OU15, which is designated as OU 7-08, addresses the organic contamination in the vadose zone (OCVZ) beneath and within the immediate vicinity of the RWMC (WAG 7). The presence of organic contaminants in the vadose zone is a result of the burial, and breach, at the SDA of containerized organic wastes from the Rocky Flats Plant, a DOE facility located west of Denver Colorado. The OCVZ OU only includes organic compounds that have migrated from the wastes, and does not address the waste materials disposed of in the pits of the SDA. Organic contaminants that are part of the OCVZ are present in the subsurface fractured basalt and sedimentary interbeds beneath and within the immediate vicinity of the RWMC, above the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The highest contaminant concentrations are found immediately beneath the SDA. Data from shipping records, along with process knowledge, written correspondence, and existing monitoring data, were available to allow OCVZ, OU 7-08, to be evaluated in an expeditious manner. A ROD was completed in December 1994, addressing this OU.

OU18, which is designated OU 7-10, addresses Pit 9 in the SDA of RWMC. Waste was placed in Pit 9 from November 1967 to June 1969. It presently has an overburden that averages about 1.8 m (6 feet) thick. Approximately 7,079.2 cubic meters of overburden, 4,247.5 cubic meters of packaged waste, and 9,910.9 cubic meters of soil were between and below the buried waste at the time of Pit 9 closure. No waste disposal has occurred in Pit 9 at the SDA since its closure in 1969. Pit 9 was identified for an interim action under the1987 Consent Order, and a ROD was completed in September 1993, documenting this interim action.

The Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) is located on the west-central side of the INEEL, approximately 50 miles west of Idaho Falls. NRF was established in 1949 as a testing site for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. NRF covers seven square miles of which 80 acres are developed and, at various times, was occupied by up to 3,300 people. NRF consists of three Naval nuclear reactor prototype plants, the Expended Core Facility (ECF), and miscellaneous support buildings.

The NRF is designated as WAG 8, and consists of nine OUs. OU19 applies only to that portion of the Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD)outside the NRF perimeter (OU 8-07, the IWD), and the Landfill Units (OUs 8-06 and 8-05), which include nine separate locations situated on the west and northeast sides of the facility. Different landfill units were used at various times from 1951 through 1971. NRF discontinued use of the last landfill unit in 1971. Non-radioactive non-hazardous industrial waste water from water treatment operations and storm water runoff has been discharged to the IWD since 1953. In 1980, the NRF ceased the discharge of all wastes to the IWD except the acidic and basic ion exchange regenerant solutions, which were self-neutralizing. A ROD addressing ten sites in OUs 8-05 and 8-06, Landfill Areas, and OU 8-07, Exterior IWD, was issued in September 1994.

The Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) is located on the west-central side of the INEEL, approximately 50 miles west of Idaho Falls. NRF was established in 1949 as a testing site for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. NRF covers seven square miles of which 80 acres are developed and, at various times, was occupied by up to 3,300 people. NRF consists of three Naval nuclear reactor prototype plants, the Expended Core Facility (ECF), and miscellaneous support buildings.

NRF is designated as WAG 8. A total of 87 known or suspected contaminant release sites, of which 71 were classified in nine OUs, were identified at NRF as requiring further study under the CERCLA process. Thirteen of the 87 sites were evaluated prior to the FFA/CO under the COCA and were not part of an OU. These 13 sites were identified as no action sites in the FFA/CO. A previous ROD addressed ten sites in OUs 8-05, 8-06, and 8-07. Eight of the nine OUs had been investigated prior to the NRF Comprehensive RI/FS. OU 8-08 represented the last OU to be investigated.

A total of 44 sites are associated with OUs 8-01, 02, 02, 04, and 09. OU 8-08 includes 18 sites that were not previously investigated under other OUs. The two new sites were not associated with any OU. OU 8-08 sites were grouped together because of similar constituents, release mechanisms, and migration paths. The OU 8-08 sites represent areas where past controlled releases of low-level radioactive water were discharged and areas where inadvertent releases to the environment occurred because of leaks from corroded piping, leaks in underground concrete basins, surface releases, and cross-contamination of non-radiological systems with radiological systems. A ROD addressing these 64 sites at NRF was completed in September 1998.

OU21, which is designated OU 9-04, addresses the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), which is part of WAG 9 and located in the southeastern portion of the INEEL. ANL-W houses extensive support facilities for three major nuclear reactors: Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), and the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR). Drinking water for employees at ANL-W is obtained from two production wells located in the west-central portion of the ANL-W facility. Within the ANL-W site is a number of research and support facilities that contribute to the total volume of waste generated at ANL-W. These facilities currently generate radioactive low-level waste, radioactive TRU, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste, and industrial waste. Approximately 750 people are employed at ANL-W facility.

The ANL-W was established in the mid1950s. The first reactor to operate at the ANL-W site was TREAT, which was built in 1959, and was designed for overpower transient tests of fuel. TREAT is now used mainly for safety tests for various fuel types as well as for non-reactor experiments. The EBR-II, a 62.5-megawatt thermal reactor, went into operation in 1964 capable of producing 19.5 megawatts of electrical power in the liquid metal reactor plant. The ZPPR was put into operation at ANL-W in 1969 and is large enough to enable core-physics studies of full-scale breeder reactors that will produce up to 1,000 megawatts. ANL-W began a redirected nuclear research and development program in FY 1995. ANL-W is also currently in the process of conducting shutdown and termination activities for the EBR-II. ZPPR was placed in programmatic standby in fiscal year 1989.

Various chemical and radioactive wastes were generated from these three reactors and the support facilities at ANL-W. The operation of these facilities and the corresponding waste streams have been evaluated and documented in the Facility Assessment and Screening document of 1973. A total of 37 WAG 9 sites were evaluated during the OU 9-04 Comprehensive RI/FS completed in October 1997. A ROD was completed in September 1998.

OU22, which is designated OU 5-13, addresses the Power Burst Facility (PBF) Evaporation Pond, Corrosive Waste Sump, and discharge pipe. The PBF, which operated from 1972 to 1985, is located in the south-central portion of the INEL. The reactor was built to support the Thermal Fuel Behavior Program's testing of pressurized-water reactor fuel rods under hypothetical reactor accidents. The PBF Evaporation Pond is a 140 by 140-foot lined surface impoundment enclosed by a cyclone fence, that was constructed in 1978 by borrowing native soil from a source located east of the pond. The Evaporation Pond is used to receive reactor secondary cooling water from the PBF reactor following neutralization in the Corrosive Waste Sump, an unlined concrete structure. The discharge pipe that leads from the Corrosive Waste Sump to the Evaporation Pond may also be contaminated.

The release of radioactive or hazardous contaminants to the Evaporation Pond was identified and evaluated during RCRA investigations. The PBF Evaporation Pond sediments have been sampled several times (1988 and 1989). A ROD was completed in September 1992, for an interim action at OU 5-13.

OU23, which is designated as OU 10-05, addresses six ordnance areas in or near areas frequented by INEEL site personnel and therefore pose an immediate unacceptable risk to human health from the threat of uncontrolled detonation of unexploded ordnance. The ordnance are primarily a result of past activities associated with the former Naval Proving Ground (NPG), which is an area of approximately 270 square miles within the INEEL. These activities included naval artillery testing, explosives storage bunker testing, and ordnance disposal. The NPG was used primarily during World War II. In addition, there are three suspected ordnance areas outside of the NPG that have been identified at the INEEL. A ROD was completed for an interim action at OU 10-05 in June 1992.

The Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 (SL-1) and Boiling Water Reactor Experiment-I (BORAX-I) burial grounds are approximately 38 and 52 miles west of Idaho Falls. The Sl-1 site is located about 1,600 feet northeast of the Auxiliary Reactor Area II and includes the surface-soil contamination area surrounding a 600 by 300-foot fenced burial ground. Approximately 99,000 cubic feet of radionuclide-contaminated debris, soil, and gravel are disposed of in the burial ground, with an estimated 2 feet of soil with a thick grass cover over the waste. The BORAX-I burial ground is located about 2,730 feet northwest of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-1, a national monument. The BORAX-I site includes a 200 by 420-foot surface-soil contamination area surrounding the 100 by 100-foot fenced burial ground. The volume of buried radionuclide-contaminated soil and debris is approximately 6,336 cubic feet. The 84,00 square foot area was covered with 6 inches of gravel in 1954, but grass, sagebrush, and other plants have reseeded the area since then. The SL-1 and BORAX-I burial grounds are historical disposal areas and do not host any current programs.

The SL-1 and BORAX-I burial grounds were constructed to dispose of contaminated debris, soils, and gravel generated by the destruction of a small nuclear reactor at each location. The BORAX-I burial ground was established in 1954; the SL-1 burial ground was established in 1961. Existing data were available to expedite evaluation of these sites. Therefore, the scope of the RI for the SL-1 and BORAX-I burial grounds did not include any sampling or acquisition of new data, and a focused FS was performed. A ROD was completed in December 1995.
Remedy:  The selected remedy for the eight Waste Area Group (WAG) 9 areas with unacceptable risks to human health and/or the environment is phytoremediation. Monitoring of the soil, groundwater and vegetation will continue for 20 years (2018), approximately 15 years after the remediation goals (RGs) are met for each site in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) orders and the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) Environmental Monitoring Plan. The soil, groundwater, and vegetation monitoring results collected semi-annually will determine trends of low level radionuclide and inorganic contaminant levels around the ANL-W facility. After the RGs are met, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) five-year reviews would be required to ensure that the assumption of DOE control of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) lands is still applicable. Phytoremediation would not be initiated on the Sanitary Sewage Lagoons because they will remain in service until approximately the year 2003 when the facility is scheduled for closure. Likewise, the Industrial Waste Pond phytoremediation will not be initiated until the cooling water discharges from the Sodium Processing Facility are completed. The final sodium cooling water discharges are currently planned for 2002.

The major components of the selected remedy for ANL-W are: completion of the phytoremediation workplan for the bench-scale testing; conducting a bench-scale phytoremediation test of selected plant species at the sites that pose unacceptable risks; determine effectiveness and implementability of phytoremediation based on results of bench-scale testing; collecting and analyzing of soil and plant samples from the two-year field season to determine the effectiveness of phytoremediation on the ANL-W soils insitu; harvesting, compacting, incinerating, and disposing of the above and below ground plant matter in a permitted landfill; continue planting/harvesting process until remedial action objectives (RAOs) are attained if the two-year field-scale testing is successful; installing access restrictions consisting of fences, bird netting, and posting of warning signs; review of the selected remedy no less than every five years until the RAOs have been met; and implementation of DOE controls which limit residential land use for at least 100 years from now (2098).

Engineering controls will be used to reduce the short-term exposures to the human workers, while fencing, covering, and harvesting methods will be optimized to reduce the short-term exposure to the ecological receptors. The results of the bench-scale greenhouse testing will determine if the selected remedy will be replaced with the more conventional contingent alternative.

No action is the appropriate remedy for 35 areas, 33 areas from WAG 9 and two sites from WAG 10. These 35 areas are: ANL-10, ANL-11, ANL-12, ANL-14, ANL-15, ANL-16, ANL-17, ANL-18, ANL-20, ANL-21, ANL-22, ANL-23, ANL-24, ANL-25, ANL-26, ANL-32, ANL-33, and ANL-27; from Operable Unit (OU) 9-01: ANL-19, ANL-28, ANL-29, ANL-30, ANL-36, ANL-60, ANL-61, ANL-62, and ANL-63; from OU 9-02: ANL-08; from OU 9-03: ANL-05, ANL-31, and ANL-34.; from OU 9-04: ANL-01 and ANL-53; from OU 10-06: ANL-W Stockpile site and ANL-W Windblown Area.

Estimated Capital Costs: $2,289,000
Estimated Annual O & M Costs: not provided
Estimated Present Worth Costs: $2,824,000
Estimated O & M Costs: $535,000
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