Superfund Information Systems: Site Profile

Superfund Site:

COAKLEY LANDFILL
NORTH HAMPTON, NH

Cleanup Activities

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Background

The Coakley Landfill site is located in Rockingham County, New Hampshire. Several municipalities used part of the 92-acre area as a landfill. The landfill area encompasses 27 acres in the southern part of the site. Cleanup work has cleaned up contamination to acceptable levels at the source. Groundwater contamination is dropping and will continue to be monitored until it reaches acceptable levels.

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What Is Being Done to Clean Up the Site?

The site is being addressed through state, federal and potentially responsible party (PRP) actions. The provision of an alternate drinking water supply has reduced the potential for exposure to groundwater contamination. Since completion of the landfill cap in 1998, groundwater flows away from nearby residences and contamination levels are slowly declining.

EPA has conducted several five-year reviews of the site’s remedy. These reviews ensure that the remedies put in place protect public health and the environment, and function as intended by site decision documents. The 2011 five-year review indicated more analysis was needed to determine whether the groundwater monitoring zone should be expanded and more restrictions put in place. An April 2013 evaluation indicated that some wells should be sampled again for 1,4-dioxane, sampling could stop in other wells and the groundwater monitoring zone should be expanded.

Overall, the five-year review concluded that the remedy at the site protects human health and the environment in the short term. Long-term protectiveness has also been achieved at the source based on continued maintenance of the landfill cap, long-term monitoring and land use restrictions. Groundwater levels will also be protective when cleanup levels for all contaminants of concern are met and restrictions on the use of groundwater can be removed.

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What Is the Current Site Status?

Since EPA issued its 1990 source control cleanup plan and its 1994 groundwater cleanup plan for the site, the acceptable level of arsenic in drinking water has changed to one fifth of what it was. EPA changed the arsenic standard for the site to match this new level. Since these cleanup plans were issued, the State of New Hampshire has updated its environmental regulations. For the source control cleanup plan, the chemical tetrahydrofuran has been added as an additional chemical of concern because groundwater monitoring detected this contaminant at levels exceeding state standards. In 2008, the site’s potentially responsible parties (PRPs) put in place groundwater restrictions and will continue to monitor groundwater quality at the site yearly until cleanup levels for all contaminants are met.

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EPA’s Involvement at the Site

The privately owned landfill accepted municipal and industrial wastes from the Portsmouth area between 1972 and 1982. Incinerator residue was also accepted from the incineration recovery plant for a refuse-to-energy project between 1982 and 1985. The primary source of contamination is the landfill. VOCs and metals are the primary contaminants. On- and off-site surface water and groundwater are contaminated. The site is located on a groundwater/surface water divide, and residential wells to the south, southeast and northeast are contaminated with low levels of VOCs. Residential and commercial areas surround the site.

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Activity and Use Limitations

At this site, activity and use limitations that EPA calls institutional controls are in place. Institutional controls play an important role in site remedies because they reduce exposure to contamination by limiting land or resource use. They also guide human behavior. For instance, zoning restrictions prevent land uses – such as residential uses – that are not consistent with the level of cleanup.

For more background, see Institutional Controls.

Institutional controls are required for this site.
 
This site requires ICs because a decision document, such as a Record of Decision, has documented some level of contamination and/or remedy component at the site that would restrict use of the site. These ICs are required to help ensure the site is used in an appropriate way and that activities at the site do not damage the cleanup components. These ICs will remain in place for as long as the contamination and/or cleanup components stay on site. The matrix below is a general summary of the restrictions at this site at the date of this report. The information in this matrix is a general description of the restrictions at the site only. The site contacts should be consulted if there are questions on the ICs for this site.
 
The following IC Instruments provide media-specific use restrictions that have been implemented by EPA for protecting human health, the environment and remedial engineering on this site. Instruments are documents used by EPA or other organizations to implement the use restrictions at a site. To know about other media-specific use restrictions that are planned but not implemented at this site, please contact the Regional Office using the Site Contact listed above. Note that where multiple entries occur, it will impact more than one pathway.
 
Click here for IC Instruments implemented for this site.

To contact EPA regarding Institutional Controls and/or activity and use limitations, please complete this form.

ICs are generally defined as administrative and legal tools that do not involve construction or physically changing the site. Common examples of ICs include site use and excavation restrictions put in place through State and local authorities like zoning, permits and easements. ICs are normally used when waste is left onsite and when there is a limit to the activities that can safely take place at the site (i.e., the site cannot support unlimited use and unrestricted exposure) and/or when cleanup components of the remedy remains onsite (e.g., landfill caps, pumping equipment or pipelines). Effective ICs help ensure that these sites can be returned to safe and beneficial use.
 
Disclaimer: This information is being provided by EPA as an informational tool to further assist the public in determining the types of restrictions that may be in place at National Priorities List sites being addressed by EPA under the Superfund program. In addition to the areas addressed by the institutional controls identified on this web site there may be other areas on the property that require restrictions on use of the property that are not captured in this EPA database. States and other entities may have implemented laws or restrictions applicable to this site. The information provided herein does not replace a title search or meet "All Appropriate Inquiry" requirements. U.S. EPA encourages users to review the Site files to obtain information regarding remedy components, containment systems and the land use for which cleanup standards were selected for these sites. More information and links can be found in the Institutional Control instrument collection of document, above, and the EPA regional offices may also be contacted.

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