BROOKLYN, QUEENS, NY
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Newtown Creek is a tidal arm of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary that forms the northwestern-most border between the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens. It is a tributary of the East River and it itself includes five branches (or tributaries) along its 3.8-mile reach. Historically, Newtown Creek drained the uplands of western Long Island and flowed through wetlands and marshes. However, due to heavy industrial development and governmental activities dating from the 1800's, formerly wet areas have been filled, Newtown Creek has been channelized, and its banks have been stabilized with bulkheads and rip rap. The historic development has resulted in changes in the nature of Newtown Creek from a natural drainage condition to one that is governed largely by engineered and institutional systems. In the mid-1800s, the area next to the 3.8-mile-long creek was one of the busiest industrial areas in New York City. More than 50 refineries were located along its banks, including oil refineries, petrochemical plants, fertilizer and glue factories, sawmills, and lumber and coal yards. Newtown Creek was crowded with commercial vessels, including large boats bringing in raw materials and fuel and taking out oil, chemicals and metals. In addition to the industrial pollution that resulted from all of this activity, the city began dumping raw sewage directly into the water in 1856. During World War II, the creek was one of the busiest ports in the nation. Currently, factories and facilities still operate along the creek. Various contaminated sites along the creek have contributed to the contamination at Newtown Creek.
What Has Been Done to Clean Up the Site?
The Consent Order for the performance of the RI and FS by the Respondents under EPA oversight was finalized and issued by EPA in July 2011. Anchor QEA, is currently conducting field work for the Respondents as part of a multi-year phased RI. The Phase 1 RI field work began in February 2012 and was completed in March 2013. The Phase 2 RI field work began in May 2014 and has been substantially completed. Human health and ecological risk assessments will be conducted to determine whether the site potentially poses an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment requiring a response action to be undertaken pursuant to CERCLA in order to protect human health and the environment at Newtown Creek.
What Is the Current Site Status?
The RI commenced in July 2011 and is focused on a study area defined in the Consent Order as the waters and sediments of Newtown Creek. The RI is being conducted in two phases under the oversight of EPA to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site. The Phase 1 RI, which included surveys of physical and ecological characteristics of Newtown Creek, as well as sampling of surface water, surface sediments, subsurface sediments and air, began in February 2012 and was completed in March 2013. The Phase 2 RI began in May 2014 and has been substantially completed. The Phase 2 RI includes, but is not limited to, further delineation of surface sediments, subsurface sediments and surface water, as well as the investigation of non-aqueous phase liquid, groundwater and other sampling in support of the human health and ecological risk assessments, such as biota sampling. The Respondents are also developing models that will assist, during the FS phase of the RI/FS, in evaluationg remedial alternatives. The Draft RI Report was submiited to EPA for review on November 15, 2016 by the Respondents pursuant to the Consent Order. The Draft RI Report contains all the data that was collected and analyzed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the RI and also includes drafts of the hydrodynamic and sediment transport models.