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The 45-acre Linemaster Switch Corp. site is located in Woodstock, Connecticut. A facility on site has made electrical and pneumatic foot switches and wiring harnesses since 1952. Operations used paint thinner, TCE and other VOCs for spray painting and vapor degreasing operations. About 20 to 200 gallons a year of TCE and other chemical were discharged into an on-site drywell in front of Linemaster’s manufacturing building from 1969 through 1979. EPA concluded that as long as soil near the drywell was a source of groundwater contamination, VOC concentrations in groundwater posed an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment, given the possible use of the groundwater for drinking water.Cleanup activities included the installation of soil and groundwater treatment systems.

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What Is Being Done to Clean Up the Site?

The site is being addressed through potentially responsible party (PRP) actions.

The site has and is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site. EPA provided bottled water to residents whose wells were contaminated before the cleanup. Filtration devices have been placed on all formerly affected wells and are periodically sampled and analyzed by Linemaster. Linemaster's main production well is being treated by a filtration system. This well supplies drinking water to the factory and one on-site residence. A water supply monitoring program was established for on- and off-site wells. Groundwater monitoring wells were installed to determine the extent of site contamination and to help in developing a cleanup remedy. In June 1993, after extensive investigation and a public comment period, EPA selected a cleanup plan to address contaminated soil and groundwater. The remedy included the use of a soil vapor extraction system with carbon controls as well as a system of groundwater extraction wells connected to an air stripper. EPA determined that the vapor extraction system operated successfully and could be turned off with minimal impact on the future operation of the groundwater system.

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What Is the Current Site Status?

Physical cleanup activities at the site are ongoing.   The work currently includes a groundwater extraction and treatment system. An EPA evaluation in 2015 indicated that the site is protective of human health and the environment in the short term. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will continue until cleanup goals have been reached.

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Activity and Use Limitations

At this site, activity and use limitations that EPA calls institutional controls are in place. Institutional controls play an important role in site remedies because they reduce exposure to contamination by limiting land or resource use. They also guide human behavior. For instance, zoning restrictions prevent land uses – such as residential uses – that are not consistent with the level of cleanup.

For more background, see Institutional Controls.

Institutional controls are required for this site.

This site requires ICs because a decision document, such as a Record of Decision, has documented some level of contamination and/or remedy component at the site that would restrict use of the site. These ICs are required to help ensure the site is used in an appropriate way and that activities at the site do not damage the cleanup components. These ICs will remain in place for as long as the contamination and/or cleanup components stay on site. The site contacts should be consulted if there are questions on the ICs for this site.
The following IC Instruments provide media-specific use restrictions that have been implemented by EPA for protecting human health, the environment and remedial engineering on this site. Instruments are documents used by EPA or other organizations to implement the use restrictions at a site. To know about other media-specific use restrictions that are planned but not implemented at this site, please contact the Regional Office using the Site Contact listed above.
Click here for IC Instruments implemented for this site.

To contact EPA regarding Institutional Controls and/or activity and use limitations, please complete this form.

ICs are generally defined as administrative and legal tools that do not involve construction or physically changing the site. Common examples of ICs include site use and excavation restrictions put in place through State and local authorities like zoning, permits and easements. ICs are normally used when waste is left onsite and when there is a limit to the activities that can safely take place at the site (i.e., the site cannot support unlimited use and unrestricted exposure) and/or when cleanup components of the remedy remains onsite (e.g., landfill caps, pumping equipment or pipelines). Effective ICs help ensure that these sites can be returned to safe and beneficial use.
Disclaimer: This information is being provided by EPA as an informational tool to further assist the public in determining the types of restrictions that may be in place at National Priorities List sites being addressed by EPA under the Superfund program. In addition to the areas addressed by the institutional controls identified on this web site there may be other areas on the property that require restrictions on use of the property that are not captured in this EPA database. States and other entities may have implemented laws or restrictions applicable to this site. The information provided herein does not replace a title search or meet "All Appropriate Inquiry" requirements. U.S. EPA encourages users to review the Site files to obtain information regarding remedy components, containment systems and the land use for which cleanup standards were selected for these sites. More information and links can be found in the Institutional Control instrument collection of document, above, and the EPA regional offices may also be contacted.

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