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The 24-acre Kim-Stan Landfill is located in Alleghany County, a predominately rural county located in west central Virginia. The landfill, in a mixed commercial and residential area of Selma, Virginia, lies along the southern edge of VA Route 696, approximately 1,000 feet south of the Jackson River, and near a string of ponds that drain into the Jackson River.
The Kim-Stan Landfill operated as a sanitary/industrial landfill for almost 20 years, and reportedly received approximately 865,000 tons of waste between November 1972 and May 1990. The depth of the waste buried at the landfill has been estimated at up to 80 feet thick.
Wastes known to have been disposed at the landfill include 5,000 gallons of waste oils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls; unknown quantities of aluminum sludges containing mercury; asbestos; and medical waste. Test pit data and information collected by local citizens indicate that landfilled wastes were derived from a wide range of sources, including hospitals, light industrial plants, manufacturing plants, automobile repair shops and dry cleaners.
This site was and formally added the National Priorities List (NPL) on July 22, 1999.
What Is Being Done to Clean Up the Site?
- Beginning in 1982, a number of organizations, including EPA Region III and the Commonwealth of Virginia, began collecting environmental samples to assess the surface water runoff and leachate problem at the landfill. The sampling results provided evidence that hazardous substances were entering the environment from the landfill. Both groundwater and surface water were being contaminated, as a result.
- The landfill was shut down by court order on May 11, 1990. When operations ceased, the active part of the landfill remained uncovered. The thickness of the soil cover over the rest of the landfill generally did not exceed six inches. Although the Commonwealth of Virginia and Allegheny County undertook several measures since 1990 to improve conditions at the landfill, surface runoff and leachate discharge still continued to pose environmental concerns until the Remedial Actions required by the 2002 Record of Decision (ROD) were implemented.
- In June 2000, Alleghany County began a storm water diversion project designed to intercept clean surface water and ground water flowing down from the Rich Patch mountains and convey the clean water around the landfill. The storm water diversion project was successfully completed in 2001.
- Along a parallel path, EPA conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) to determine the nature and extent of contamination and a Feasibility Study (FS) looking at ways to address the ongoing risks from the site. As part of the RI, samples of air, soil, surface water, sediments, and groundwater were collected, and a risk assessment was completed.
- In 2002, the EPA issued the ROD for the Kim-Stan Landfill. The ROD identified the cleanup approach for the site, which was divided into two portions. The first portion, a pipeline to carry leachate to the Allegheny County sewer system, was completed in 2007. The second portion, a leachate collection system, was completed in August of 2009.
- EPA began the Remedial Action (RA) at this Site in October 2005. Phase I of the RA included upgrades to the Low-Moor waste water treatment plant that increased capacity by 250,000 gallons. Construction of a dedicated leachate line to bring leachate from the landfill to the wastewater treatment plant was also completed.
- EPA completed all phases of the cleanup in August of 2009. The system is operational.
What Is the Current Site Status?
A Five-Year Review of the Site was conducted in 2015, concluding the remedy currently protects human health and the environment in the short term. The landfill cap, leachate collection system, and institutional controls prevent exposure to contaminated soil and groundwater. Routine monitoring ensures that unsafe concentrations of landfill gas are not migrating off site.
On March 1, 2012, the Commonwealth of Virginia took over the long-term responsibility for Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the site after EPA completed the Remedial Action. The state continues to oversee O&M.