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The 24-acre Kim-Stan Landfill is located in Alleghany County, a predominately rural county located in west central Virginia. The landfill, in a mixed commercial and residential area of Selma, Virginia, lies along the southern edge of VA Route 696, approximately 1,000 feet south of the Jackson River, and near a string of ponds that drain into the Jackson River.
The Kim-Stan Landfill operated as a sanitary/industrial landfill for almost 20 years, and reportedly received approximately 865,000 tons of waste between November 1972 and May 1990. The depth of the waste buried at the landfill has been estimated at up to 80 feet thick.
Wastes known to have been disposed at the landfill include 5,000 gallons of waste oils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls; unknown quantities of aluminum sludges containing mercury; asbestos; and medical waste. Test pit data and information collected by local citizens indicate that landfilled wastes were derived from a wide range of sources, including hospitals, light industrial plants, manufacturing plants, automobile repair shops and dry cleaners.
This site was and formally added the National Priorities List (NPL) on July 22, 1999.
What Is the Current Site Status?
A Five-Year Review of the Site was conducted in 2010. It found the remedy to be protective of human health and the environment. The next Five-Year Review will occur in 2015.
EPA’s Involvement at the Site
- The lack of any substantial containment for surface water runoff or leachate was a major problem at the Kim-Stan landfill. During heavy rain, storm water runoff from the landfill drained northward. It frequently flooded the highway on the northern border of the landfill and carried runoff onto the Oakland Church and CSX Railroad properties, the wetlands, and the ox-bow "ponds." Sampling results indicated that hazardous substances from the landfill contaminated the nearby wetlands and the ponds, which the public use as fisheries. While the landfill was in operation, the owners/operators undertook several measures to address surface runoff and leachate production. None of the measures taken to contain leachate within the boundary of the landfill was successful.
- Beginning in 1982, a number of organizations, including EPA Region III and the Commonwealth of Virginia, began collecting environmental samples to assess the surface water runoff and leachate problem at the landfill. The sampling results provided evidence that hazardous substances were entering the environment from the landfill. Both ground water and surface water were being contaminated, as a result.
- The landfill was shut down by court order on May 11, 1990. When operations ceased, the active part of the landfill remained uncovered. The thickness of the soil cover over the rest of the landfill generally did not exceed six inches. Although the Commonwealth of Virginia and Allegheny County undertook several measures since 1990 to improve conditions at the landfill, surface runoff and leachate discharge still continued to pose environmental concerns until the Remedial Actions required by the 2002 ROD were implemented.
- In June 2000, Alleghany County began a storm water diversion project designed to intercept clean surface water and ground water flowing down from the Rich Patch mountains and convey the clean water around the landfill. The storm water diversion project was successfully completed in 2001.
- Along a parallel path, EPA conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) to determine the nature and extent of contamination and a Feasibility Study (FS) looking at ways to address the ongoing risks from the site. As part of the RI, samples of air, soil, surface water, sediments, and ground water were collected, and a risk assessment was completed.
- In July 2002, EPA released its Proposed Remedial Action Plan (PRAP or proposed plan) to address the risks presented by the landfill. EPA's proposed plan called for: 1) installation of an impermeable landfill cap to prevent infiltration of rain water through the buried wastes; 2) control of leachate with a collector trench; 3) conveyance of that leachate to the nearby Low-Moor water treatment plant for cleaning; 4) ground water monitoring; and 5) institutional controls to protect the integrity of the constructed remedy and prevent potable use of ground water in the vicinity of the landfill. In addition, the PRAP provides for the upgrade of the water treatment plant so it can efficiently address the increased volume of water from the landfill.
- In 2002, the EPA completed the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Kim-Stan Landfill. The ROD identified the cleanup approach for the site, which was divided into two portions. The first portion, a pipeline to carry leachate to the Allegheny County sewer system, was completed in 2007. The second portion, a leachate collection system, was completed in August of 2009.
- EPA began the Remedial Action (RA) at this Site, in October 2005. Phase I of the RA included upgrades to the Low-Moor waste water treatment plant that increased capacity by 250,000 gallons. Construction of a dedicated leachate line to bring leachate from the landfill to the wastewater treatment plant was also completed.
EPA completed all phases of the cleanup in August of 2009. The system is operational.
- On March 1, 2012, the Commonwealth of Virginia took over the long-term responsibility for Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the site after EPA completed the Remedial Action. The State continues to oversee O&M.
- A Five-Year Review of the Site was conducted in 2010. It found the remedy to be protective of human health and the environment. The next Five-Year Review will occur in 2015.