Superfund Information Systems: Site Profile

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About the Superfund Redevelopment Initiative

This nationally coordinated effort provides EPA and its partners with a process to return Superfund sites to productive use. Learn more at Superfund Redevelopment Initiative.

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Redevelopment at the Site

The 27-acre Delaware Sand & Gravel Landfill Site in New Castle, Delaware, demonstrates industrial reuse of a former landfill. Between 1968 and 1976, the landfill on site accepted municipal and industrial wastes, including drums containing organic and inorganic chemicals. Leachate from the landfill area contaminated ground water. In 1983, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). Cleanup at the site included the removal of waste drums, capping of waste disposal areas, bio-venting of contaminated soil, and pumping and treatment of contaminated groundwater. Capping took place on a 16-acre portion of the site. EPA worked with the site owner to construct a special "wear-surface" cap over a 5-acre portion of the landfill in order to support reuse of the landfill area. The "wear surface" cap supports daily use as a storage area for heavy equipment. This area of the site operates as a storage area for impounded vehicles, propane tanks and salvage materials.

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Economic Activity at the Site

As of December 2018, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. View information about redevelopment economics at Superfund sites.

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Activity and Use Limitations

At this site, activity and use limitations that EPA calls institutional controls are in place. Institutional controls play an important role in site remedies because they reduce exposure to contamination by limiting land or resource use. They also guide human behavior. For instance, zoning restrictions prevent land uses – such as residential uses – that are not consistent with the level of cleanup. For more background, see Institutional Controls.

Institutional controls at the Delaware Sand & Gravel Site include restrictions that prevent any future use of the waste management areas that could compromise the effectiveness of the cleanup and restrictions preventing the installation of drinking water wells.

Additional information about the institutional controls are available in the 2015 Five Year Review (PDF) .


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