Superfund Site: HENRY'S KNOB

Superfund Site Profile

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The Henry’s Knob Former Mine Site (the “Site”) is located near the intersection of Highway 55 and Henry’s Knob Road in Clover, York County, South Carolina and encompasses approximately 185 acres. The Henry’s Knob Site was an open pit kyanite mine that operated from 1947 to 1970. Kyanite is primarily used in producing refractory, ceramic and porcelain materials that withstand high temperatures. The Site derives its name from the relief feature known as Henry’s Knob which was transformed into an open pit mine and then allowed to fill with water and is now a seven acre acidic pond.

The Site consists of the former open pit mine, tailings ponds, spoils piles, and remnant mine operation buildings. The Site is currently being remediated through the Superfund Alternative Approach to address the contamination on the groundwater, sediment, soil and surface water present at the Site from the former mine operations. Sampling has found elevated levels of arsenic, manganese, cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, cobalt, magnesium, barium, and zinc with the primary contaminant being manganese.

The Site has been broken down into 10 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and multiple offsite residences where contamination has been found in their well (primarily manganese). These ten AOCs are:

  • Area 1 – West Tailing Pond, an industrial waste lagoon on the western side of Henry’s Knob Road
  • Area 2 – North Tailings Pond, infiltration beds/settling ponds on the eastern side of Henry’s Knob Road
  • Area 3 – Former Mill Operation Buildings on the eastern side of Henry’s Knob Road
  • Area 4 – Mine Pit Pond
  • Area 5 – East Tailings Pond, also known as the Mine Tailings Area
  • Area 6 – South Fork of Crowder’s Creek
  • Area 7 – Dumping Area, located on the eastern side of Henry’s Knob Road
  • Area 8 – Northern Waste Rock Area
  • Area 9 – Southern Waste Rock Area
  • Area 10 – Site Ground Water

In 2004 EPA and ABB, Inc. entered into an agreement to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) or RI/FS. In addition, ABB has hired AMEC as their contractor to investigate the impacts of kyanite mining and to develop and implement a cleanup plan that is protective of human health and the environment. EPA, in collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) is overseeing activities conducted by ABB and AMEC at the Site.